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Full text of "New illustration of the sexual system of Carolus von Linnaeus : comprehending an elucidation of the several parts of the fructification ; a prize dissertation on the sexes of plants, a full explanation of the classes, and orders, of the sexual system ; and the temple of flora, or garden of nature, being picturesque, botanical, coloured plates, of select plants, illustrative of the same, with descriptions"

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With Flowers the Graces bind their golden hair, 

And Flowery Wreaths consenting Lovers wear. 

Flowers, the sole luxury which nature knew 

In Eden's pure and guiltless Garden grew. 

To loftier forms are rougher tasks assign'd ; 

The sheltering Oak resists the stormy wind, 

The tougher Yew repels th' invading foe, 

And the tall Pines for future navies grow ; 

But this soft family, to cares unknown, 

Were born for pleasure and delight alone, 

Gay without toil, and lovely without art, 

They spring to cheer the sense and glad the heart. 


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Oh! Bards of Athens! for your classic rage, 
Or Rubens' fire, to warm the kindling page; 
Then like those vivid tints my Song should glow, 
And Thornton's praise in noblest numbers flow; 
Fervent as his should roll the breathing line, 
The radiant colouring, and the rich design. 

From orient regions where the tropic ray 
Lights beauty's beams, and pours the glowing day, 
To where th' eternal snows of winter spread, 
And ice-clad mountains rear their lofty head, 
Thy daring hand hath cull'd the loveliest flow'rs 
To deck delighted Albion s happier bow'rs; 
On each proud page in varied radiance bright, 
The Muse exulting feasts her raptur'd sight; 
For ever fresh those flow'rs; for ever fair! 
The rage of Envy and of Time shall dare. 
Around thy couch their branching tendrils wave, 
And cast their fragrant shadows o'er thy grave. 

Beneath the Pleiads, taught by thee to bloom, 
While Fancy fondly drinks their rich perfume, 
A second Paradise our senses greets, 
And Asia wafts us all her world of sweets. 

To Thornton loudly strike th* applausive string, 
'Mid desert wastes who bids an Eden spring, 
On canvass bids the glowing landscape rise, 
Each plant fair blooming 'mid its native skies ; 
Whether dark clouds the angry heav'ns deform 
Where round the Cape loud howls th' incessant storm; 
Or Genius waving high her magic wand, 
Bids all Arabia s purple blooms expand; 


Or pours the Ganges thro' the wide spread plain, 
In foaming torrents rushing to the main. 
By thee transported from the farthest pole 
Where the slow Bears their frozen circuit roll 
We tread the region parch'd by Sirius' ray, 
Where the bright Lotos basks in floods of day; 
Or pensive wander by Columbian streams, 
Where everlasting summer pours its beams; 
Along her vast but rich savannas rove, 
Or trace the mazes of the boundless grove, 
Where thousand birds their painted plumes unfold, 
And crests that blaze with azure and with gold; 
Where Nature's pencil lights her brightest dies, 
And all Brazilia flames before our eyes. 

• « 

ft I 

Though, o'er her head the southern whirlwind rave, 
Secure, behold! superb Strelitzia wave; 
While amidst barren rocks and arctic snows 
Fair Kalmia in refulgent beauty glows: — 
Lo ! Cereus faithful to th' appointed hour, 
With glory's beams illumes the midnight hour; 
Ah fleeting beams ! ere Phoebus darts his rays, 
Wither'd thy beauty, and extinct its blaze! 
Not so yon Aloe, on whose tow'ring head 
An hundred years their fost'ring dews have shed; 
Not so the Glories that these leaves illume, 
Whose splendid tints for centuries shall bloom! 

Fain would the Muse each beauteous Plant rehearse, 
And sing their glories in immortal verse ; 
But who shall paint them with a pow'r like thine, 
Tis in thy page those glories brightest shine! — 
So lovely in their form, so bright their hue, 
And in such dazzling groups they charm the view ! 
The Muse astonish'd drops her feeble lyre, 

And baffled Art gives way to Nature's fire ; 

That fire is thine — in every leaf it burns, 

And imitation's noblest efforts spurns. 

The mighty Work complete, through ALBION's bounds 

Thy name is echoed, and thy fame resounds; 

Exulting Science weaves the deathless bays, 

And rival Monarchs swell the note of Praise. 









O for some bow'iy nook, 'midst Nature s scenes 

Of purest blossoms and unsullied greens; 

A still, small, Home that I may call my own, 

My joy, my pride, my palace, and my throne ; 

With yet a dinner, sav'd by frugal care, 

A social platter for a friend to share! 

Thus pray'd the Muse, a Poet's wish to crown — 
Upon a Poet's wish no Muse can frown ! 
The pray'r was heard; and soon, by Fancy's aid, 
A nook was chosen, and a Cot was made. 
Streams, groves, and gardens, deck'd the smiling bound— 
A Paradise of sweets — on Fairy ground. 

Quick, Friendship came, with Fortune at his side, 
To realize the Song and Poet's pride, 
A bow'ry nook was given* 'midst Nature's scenes 
Of purest blossoms and unsullied greens. 

* Mr Pratt the admired author of " Sympathy," and other well known poems, excited from his works such lively interest, that as a sub- 
scription to hi; last production, - Harvest Homer a noble-minded stranger sent him the title deeds of a Cottage, with a piece of ground 

attached to it, near to his own domain. 

" Accept," a generous stranger said,— 

Touchd by the pages he had read, 

" Accept, since you at length have found 

Joy-giving Health on Hampshire ground ; 

Hampshire, where Health delights to reign, 

The Goddess of the Wood and Plain : 

Accept a little sylvan spot, 

Where you may build your Poet's Cot: 

Nay where, already cut and dried, 

A river running close beside, 

With valley low and mountain high, 

And many a capability, 

A Cot you 11 find, which little care 

And no great cost may soon repair : 

That Cot is yours, and garden ground; 

And all the pleasant scene around." 

From p. 104 of Harvest Home. 

My Subscription was as one author to another, which produced unsolicited the present Panegyric on an humble first attempt torije. 
Temple to Flora— by a Garden of Nature. 

Compact the spot, it prov'd her happiest pow'r; 

She knew 'twas good, and bless'd each opening flower. 

See ! who that loves from Jealousy is free? 

Flora now felt it— tho' a Goddess she. 

All " out of doors" she eyed with fond delight; 

(For all her fragrant children were in sight:) 

Her Pink, her Rose, her Hyacinths were there, 
Shedding delightful odours through the air. 

Touch'd by the sweet enchantment of the scene, 
She deign'd a visit to the charms within: 
The Cot she enter'd ; there beheld her flowers, 
Tho' cropt, still breathing all her balmy powers : 
Lovely 'midst thorns her Brier, and Roses gay, 
And many a petal charming in decay. 

Yet as around she cast her raptur'd eye, 

Bright'ning the walls, she saw a fresh supply: 

Some gifts of yesterday began to fade, 

But sweets new-pluck'd were blooming in their stead. 

u All these," she cried, " are mine; and this fair spot 

44 Shall henceforth boast the name of Flora's Cot. 

44 This Renealmia, this lov'd Snowdrop too, 
" Display my magic Touch and matchless Hue; 
" This tender Sensitive, this Aloe, sweet, 
" Cereus and Cyclamen all Art defeat. 

44 Yes, mine are all the lovely train I see, 

44 Unrivall'd Flora's beauteous Family." 

Self-charm'd she paus'd, — but soon, advancing near, 
Art's pow'rful Magic on the Walls appear; 
Another Flora seems to breathe and glow, 
Lotus unfold, and love -sick Kalmia blow. 
The Goddess gaz'd, and mad'ning with the smart, 
Felt the fierce anguish of a Jealous Heart. 

" And shall a mortal Pencil thus presume," 
She cried, " to emulate my heav'nly Bloom ? 
" Shall my own offspring thus untimely die, 
" And Art's frail progeny thus flourish nigh? 
" Shall these erect a Temple of their own, 
44 And I ascend a poor divided Throne? 

" Forbid it Nature! " Nature rose to view: 

To meet whose arms the angry Goddess flew: 
Then told her tale, then pointed to the flowers 
Whereon proud Art had lavish'd all her powers: 
Till more indignant, as she more survey 'd 
The imitation nice of light and shade, 


Th' unfolding leaf, the soft bud newly burst, 

A second Flora vieing with the first. 

11 These!" she exclaim'd, — " these flowers should be mine. 

" Taken, O Nature, from thy holy shrine: 

" I, only I, should such rich tints bestow, 

u I, only I, should give that kindling glow. 

" Hold!" said the Sister- Goddess, — " the desire 
" Thus to paint the charms which we inspire, 
" Demands our praise — 'tis incense at our shrine, 
" And Art but proves our Empire more divine. 
" Art's noblest effort but makes known our Fame ; 
u Different our realms, our Worship is the same, 
" To both does heavn-bum Genius bend the knee!" 
Then Flora smil'd, and all was Harmony. 



,V I 






THORNTON, while polish'd Darwin tells 
The loves of FLORA'S gaudy train, 

'Tis thine to guard from time's decay 
The fading glories of her reign. 

Thy GARDEN of perpetual bloom 

No change of threatening skies can fear; 

Nor dashing rains, nor chilling blasts, 
Can reach the lovely fav'rites here. 

Bright TULIPA in form as fair 
As on the lap of Nature shines ; 

As gaily spreads each opening flowV, 
As soft each varying tint combines; 

Whether in Asia's sun-bright soil 

The Nymph her crimson chalice b rears, 

Or mid Batavia's fost'ring clime c 
In every added charm appears. 

Here view august, in conscious pride, 
AGAVE lift her standard high ; 

Swell in full pomp her cluster'd flowers, 
Resolv'd to triumph ere she die. 

There CEREA, rich in countless charms, 
Spreads to the moon her golden ray; 

Nor fears that, ere yon orb descends, 
Each blooming grace should fade away. 

Behold, in realms of endless spring, 
MIMOSA's beauteous form arise; 

While, circling round on festive wing, 
The ruby-throated spoiler flies. 

Here, floating to the evening air, 
Fair PASSIFLORA scents the gale ; 

Expands her crowns of sapphire blue, 
And softly waves her petals pale. 

NATURE, well pleas'd at Art's success, 

Each imitative grace shall see; 
And FLORA with approving smile 

Shall twine her choicest Wreaths for THEE. 



b Alluding to the CANNA INDICA. 

* Alluding to the Group of HYACINTHS. 

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The introduction of Flora, Ceres, and /Esculapius, is emblematic of the advantages 
derived from the study of the science of Botany, as in the works of Linnaeus, to physic, agri- 
culture, and as an elegant pursuit for Ladies. Cupid is represented in allusion to the sexual 
si/stem, invented by Linnjeus. The Zephyr above denotes Springs the season most favourable 
to the study of Botany. The fair forms of Flora and of Cupid, with the bust of Linnaeus, 
cannot fail to disclose to the eye of the observer the magic pencil of a Russel; and the figures 
of jEsculapius and Ceres, the nervous and masterly strokes of an Opie. 


Sacred to great LINNiEUS' honour d name, 
A laurel grove perpetuates his fame, 
Where deck'd in honest pride by Sculpture's hand, 
See rival nations* bid his image stand, 
The foremost of the human race to rise, 
Nor servile flattery this, or base disguise. 
Crowds, now retiring, leave the hallow'd place, 
When Sol's bright car has run its daily race, 
And gold-fringd pearly clouds dissolve away, 
And evening veils the glaring face of day. 
Then, first, the sprightly, subtle boy, 
Beauty's offspring, winged LOVE, 
Bounding on in wanton joy, 
Springs forward to the laurel grove, 
And grateful traces on the stone 
In golden lines his tribute gay f, 
Proud thus indelibly to own 
The triumphs of his tender sway. 

* In allusion to the bust of Linnaeus, which was first raised in the botanic garden of Edinburgh by the botanical Professor. 

LINNjEO posuit j. hope. 
as was also done in the year l 790, in the botanic garden at Paris, by a decree of the National Assembly, 
f The lines which Cupid writes on the pedestal are as follow \ 

All animated Nature owns my sway, 

Earth, sea, and air, my potent laws obey. 

And thou, divine LiNNiEUS, traced my reign 

O'er trees, and shrubs, and Flora's beauteous train, 

Proved them obedient to my soft controul, 

And gaily breathe an aromatic soul, 

Charlotte Lenox. 

This lady was invited by the late illustrious Dr. Samuel Johnson, to meet all his literary acquaintances. After dinner, the Doctor gave, 
" To the Muses," and as one of them, he publickly crowned this celebrated authoress with bays. Vide Life of Johnson prefixed to his 
stupendous Dictionary. 



I I 


Light fantastic, and elegantly free, 
Next FLORA, blue-ey'd goddess, jocund, see, 
In snow-white vesture, half-pellucid, drest, 
Through whose thin folds, by Zephyrus carest, 
A form celestial presses to the sight 
In graceful symmetry. As Venus bright 
She moves, that lively goddess of desire ! 
But looks the vestal maid to check the fire, 
And breathes the rapturous delight of sense, 
And smiles with beaming grace of innocence. 
She weaves her varied wreath 
In artless, sweet simplicity, 
While every flower her feet beneath 
Springs upward to felicity, 
Happy if pluck'd by Flora's hand, 
Their several tints, by skill when wrought, 
Of sweets will form a blooming band ; 
A garland to the sage she brought. 


Then nut-brown CERES, as she walks along, 
Trilling in rustic phrase her ev'ning song, 
When from the plenteous harvest she returns, 
Bearing the yellow wealth which labour earns, 
Quick from the summit of the hill she spies 
The honour'd bust, and soon a wreath she ties, 
A golden chaplet, choice reward of heaven! 
Unfading crown, to mortals rarely given, 
And hastes away to join the lovely pair, 
And pay with gratitude her homage there. 
By the sparkling of her eye, 
Of the darkest hazel hue ; 
By her forehead arched high, 
And tawny freckles not a few, 
The village maid is clearly seen, 
Flush'd in ruddy glow of health, 
Beauteous goddess of the plain, 
Fruitful source of all our wealth. 




Last, reverend age with sober step appears, 

And perfect praise to great LINNAEUS rears; 

For lo! where sapient jESCULAPIUS nigh 

Lifts with delight the warm enraptur'd eye, 

And owns the debt his science owes to thee, 

Great Northern Genius, Sire of Botany ! 

The knotty staff, the twining serpent, tell 

Apollo's favour d son, denoting well 

The difficulties, and the cunning art 

Requir'd to parry Death's envenom'd dart. 
Thus hoary WISDOM * here combines 
And each their proper homage joins, 
Unrivall'd SWEDE! thy worth to prove. 
Thus manly ADMIRATION stands, 
And CUPID writes immortal fame, 
While FEMALES use with lavish hands 
Their flowers in honour of thy name. 

Samuel Hull Wilcock, 


+ Flora. 

J Ceres. 

§ Cupid. 



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The sexes of Plants had been suggested by Grew and Sir Thomas Millington, and this 
doctrine was more advanced by Vaillant, but wanted confirmation by experiments, which made 
the Imperial Academy of Petersburgh offer an handsome premium for proofs of this doctrine, 
and occasioned Linnaeus to write a dissertation on this subject, which gained for him the 

honourable award. 

Teeming with Nature s lively hues, 
I bid thee welcome, genial spring! 
While fancy wakes her thousand lyres, 
And woods and vales responsive sing. 

She comes; lo! winter scowls away; 
Harmonious forms start forth to view, 
Nymphs tripping light in circles gay, 
Deck'd in their robes of virgin hue. 

Then I, on am'rous sportings bent, 

Like a sly archer take my stand; 

Wide through the world my shafts are sent; 

And ev'ry creature owns my hand. 

First man, the lord of all below, 
A captive sinks beneath my dart; 
And lovely woman, made to glow, 
Yields the dominion of her heart. 

Through sea and earth and boundless sky, 
The fond subjection all must prove, 
Whether they swim the stream or fly, 
Mountain or vale or forest rove. 

Nor less the Gardens sweet domain, 
The mossy heath and verdant mead, 
The tow'ring hill, the level plain, 
And fields with blooming life o'erspread. 

George Dyer. 








Cosway H^L.pvzx. 

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London .Published bv I)T Thornton. May i.i&on . 







Odi profanum Fidgus, et arceo. 


(J, come not here, ye proud, whose breasts infold 

Th' insatiate wish of glory, or of gold ; 

O come not ye, whose wrinkled foreheads wear 

Th' eternal frown of envy, or of care ; 

For YOU no Dryad decks her fragrant bowers, 

For YOU her sparkling urn no Naiad pours; 

Unmark'd by YOU light Graces skim the green, 

And hov'ring Cupids aim their shafts unseen.— 

But THOU, whose Mind the well-attemper'd ray 
Of taste, and virtue, lights with purer day, 
Whose finer Sense each soft vibration owns, 
With sweet responsive sympathy of tones ; 
For THEE sweet Cereus and Renealmias glow, 
And other plants their curious structure shew; 
For THEE my Vallies nurse the varied Wreath; 
My Rivers murmur, and my Zephyrs breathe; 
My painted Birds their vivid plumes unfold, 

And Insects wave their little wings of gold 

So the fair Flower expands her lucid form 
To meet the Sun, and shuts it to the Storm. 







Milton has given us a fine description of the most perfect garden. 

Through Eden went a river large, 

Nor chang'd his course, but through the shaggy hill 
Pass'd underneath ingulph'd, for God had thrown 
That mountain as this garden mound, high rais d 

Upon the rapid current 

from that sapphire fount the crisped brooks 

Rolling on orient pearl, and sands of gold, 

With mazy error under pendent shades, 

Ran fruitfulness, visiting each plant. 

Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice art 

In beds and curious knots, but Nature s boon 

Pour'd forth profuse on hill, and dale, and plain, 

Both where the morning sun first warmly smote 

The open field, and where the unpierc'd shade 

Imbrownd the noon-tide bow'rs. — Thus was this place 

A happy seat of various view 

So in our picturesque botanical plates the reader must not expect to see yew trees 
cut into various forms, long avenues of upright timber, gravel-walks meeting to some circular 
bason of water, or a cascade playing its forced part, statues stationed at the four corners of a 
smooth carpet of turf, labyrinths, boats on the water fashioned like a swan, cards to keep the 
calyxes from bursting, upright sticks, and regular disposition, that place where Leisure 

" In trim garden takes his pleasure? 

But each scenery is appropriated to the subject. Thus in the nighi-blounng you have 
fhe moon 3 .*■*#* - 'he turret-clock points XII. the hour at n,ght 
when this flower is in its full expanse. In the large-Jlowering Mimosa, first discovered on the 
mountains of Jamaica, you haye the humming birds of that country, and one of the aborigines 
Tuck with astonishment at the peculiarities of the plant. In .he M U ly A-"^*""* 
the shade it delights in, with a sky whose clouds yet contain snow within then bosom. In he 
nlrrZ leaved Kalmia, which comes forth under the same zone, but at an earher season, the 
luntabs are still covered with their fleecy mantle. The nodding Rehealmia, on the con- 
Z h a wal sky, and cocoa-nut trees skirt the distant scenery. The Auricula ,s repre- 
ente'd as flomishing o n Alpine mountains, when the utility of their banner becomes conspicuous. 
lit no„ECATHEON of Amman, Cowsl.p, a sea view is given, and a vessel bearing a flag 
of that c Zy th^me is shewn by a butterfly in the plates of the .W^W Beook.a; 
Id the Z& Hhopooenorok. In the Chinese Limoiioron, and the Indun, Canka, are 
and the nine bh»» Tulips and Hyacinths are placed in Holland, 

represented the pagodas of _the East The 1 ^ Th(j Al0£ erec , s _ 

^rn^E^ESM «- '.eight and shape of the whole plan, 
,„ contrast, its stately torn, am g Stapelia you will find represented 

ma y be seen in the back-ground. In he ,. ,aggo, g ; ^ ^ 

. green African snake, and a ^Mow-fly » £ £ rfde > S J gg ^ ^ - 

magg „ts produced from this cause. h^lo ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

sombre about the dragon Arum 'l^W to relieve the flower, there is a break, pre- 
a dark back-ground was oblige d to be . oihoeed ^ ^ ^ .^ .„ , ^ 

senting to the view a emple te4 £"* * ^ p . 1|ars _ ^.^ (o 

Hence the several species <* *""££ rf the tablc race are carefully dissected, it is 

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In viewing with attention the works of Nature, we cannot fail to notice the highest degree of 
perfection and harmony of parts. In the animal creation, when the morning is but dawning, 
we have first the plaintive matin of the robin ; as the sun becomes nearer the horizon, the wake- 
ful lark, on vibrating wing, gives his cheerful song; the sun once fully risen, and all the warblers 
of the forest unite in the vocal concert; after a pause, the sun declining, the nightingale joins 
the robin, but with a song in a much more plaintive strain, and she finally ends in a solo; a and 
when utter darkness closes the scene, the frog croaks, the owl screeches, and all partakes of 
the solemnity of night. An African scene at this late hour is dreadful indeed ! Besides the 
hissing of serpents, there are the continual barkings of the wolf and jackall, the yell of the 
tyger, hyaena, and panther, and the roaring of the lion, appalling every heart with fear. 


January 26. The Snow-Drop (Galanthus nivalis) flowers. 

With the same judicious harmonizing of parts, the first flower that appears on the verge of 
winter is the Snow-Drop, of a pale white, with a little green in the three central petals, whose 
form the poetess thus elegantly depicts. 

Poets still, in graceful numbers, 

May the glowing Roses choose; 
But the Snow-Drop's simple beauty 

Better suits an humble muse. 

Earliest bud that decks the garden, 

Fairest of the fragrant race, 
First-born child of vernal Flora, 

Seeking mild, thy lowly place. 

» The plaintive song of Philomela is thus beautifully described by Virgil. Orpheus laments the loss of Eurydice for seven whole 

The rocks were mov'd with pity to his moans, 

Trees bent their heads to hear him sing his wrongs, 

Fierce tygers couch'd around, and loll'd their fawning tongues. 

So, close in poplar shades, her children gone, 

The mother Nightingale laments alone; 

Whose nest some prying boy had found, and thence 

By stealth convey'd th* unfeather'd innocence. 

Thus she supplies the night with mournful strains, 

And melancholy music fills the plains. 





Though no warm, or murmuring zephyr, 
Fan thy leaves with balmy wing: 

Pleas'd, we hail thee, spotless blossom, 
Herald of the infant Spring, 

Through the cold, and cheerless season, 
Soft thy tender form expands, 

Safe in unaspiring graces, 

Foremost of the bloomy bands. 

White-rob'd flow'r, in lonely beauty, 

Rising from a wintry bed ; 
Chilling winds, and blasts ungenial, 

Rudely threatening round thy head. 

Silv'ry bud, thy pensile foliage, 
Seems the angry blaft to fear; 

Yet secure, thy tender texture 
Ornaments the rising year. 

No warm tints, or vivid colouring, 
Paints thy bells with gaudy pride ; 

Mildly charm'd, we seek thy fragrance 
Where no thorns insidious hide. 

Tis not thine, with flaunting beauty, 
To attract the roving sight ; 

Nature, from her varied wardrobe, 
Chose thy vest of purest white. 

White, as falls the fleecy shower, 
Thy soft form in sweetness grows; 

Not more fair the valley's treasure, 
Nor more sweet, her Lily blows. 

Drooping harbinger of Flora, 
Simply are thy blossoms drest ; 

Artless, as the gentle virtues, 

Mansion d in the blameless breast. 

Cordelia Skeeles. 


January 28, the Crocus (Crocus vernusj flowers. 

The Spuing Crocus (Crocus vemus) in its wild state in Switzerland is not yellow, but 
white with a purple base, aeeording to Haller. In England it is of a pale purple eolour. 

Like the Snow-Drop, it is first protected by a sheath, or spatha, and lies near the ground. 
Its transmutation from a human form is mentioned by Ovid in the fourth book of his Met*- 

Its congener, the Autumnal Crocus (Crocus Autumnalis) is also of a purple colour, as 
best suited to this season of the year; nor does it blow till most plants begin to fade, and run to 

Say, what impells, amidst surrounding snow 
Congeal'd, the Crocus' yellow bud to blow? 
Say, what retards, amidst the summer blaze, 
Th' autumnal bulb, till pale, declining days?— 
The God of Seasons, whose pervading power 
Controls the sun, or sheds the fleecy shower, 
He bids each Flower his quickn'ing word obey, 
Or to each lingering bloom enjoins delay. 


February 1, the Winter Hellebore (Helleborus hiemalis) flowers. 

Nature assumes now a more towering aspect, but still there is the same delicate white as in 
the preceding month, and the Winter Hellebore presents us with flowers that have five 
broad white petals, which afterwards turn to a dull green. 

As yon gay clouds, which canopy the skies, 
Change their thin forms, and lose their lucid dyes, 
So the soft bloom of beauty's early charms 
Fades in our eyes, and withers in our arms. 
Bright as the silvery plume, or pearly shell, 
The fairest rose, or lily's virgin bell, 
The snowy Hellebore attractive shone; 
Pleas'd every sage, and every shepherd won : 
Round the gay sisters press the enamour'd ba?ids 9 

And seek with soft solicitude their hands. 

Ere while how chang'd! — in dim suffusion lies 
The glance divine, that lighten'd in their eyes ; 
Cold are those lips, where smiles seductive hung, 

And the weak accents linger on their tongue 

As each fair feature turns to livid green, 
Disgust with face averted shuts the scene. 


March 1, the Spurge Laurel (Daphne Laureola) flowers. 

This beautiful Evergreen, a native of our happy island, and of the other parts of Europe, 
resembling the palm-tree in miniature, early puts forth its flowers, and as if by mtenfon, these 
are of a pale dull green, to give more dignity to its leaves aud berries, destmed to crown the 
brow of the warrior victorious in his country's cause, or the poet, who chants these, 
or sings the attributes of Plants. 

The earliest of Apollo's loves was she, 
Whom not blind Fortune, but the dire decree 
Of angry Cupid, forc'd him to desire: 
Daphne her name, and Peneus was her sire. 
Swell'd with the pride, that new success attends, 
He sees the stripling, while his bow he bends, 
And thus insults him: " Thou lascivious Boy, 
" Are arms like these for children to employ? 
" Know, such atchievements are my proper claim; 
" Due to my vigour, and unerring aim: 
" Resistless are my shafts, and Python late, 
" In such a feather'd death, has found his fate. 
" Take up the torch, and lay my weapons by." 

To whom the son of Venus thus replied. 
PHffiBUS, thy shafts are sure on all beside, 
But mine on Phojbus, mine the fame shall be 
On all thy conquests, when I conquer thee." 
He said, and soaring, swiftly wing'd his flight; 
Nor stopt but on Parnassus' airy height. 
Two diff'rent shafts he from his quiver draws; 
One to repel desire, and one to cause. 
One shaft is pointed with refulgent gold, 
To bribe the love, and make the lover bold ; 
One blunt, and tipt with lead, whose base allay 
Provokes disdain, and drives desire away. 
The blunted bolt against the Nymph he drest; 
But with the sharp transfixt Apollo's breast. 
Th' enamour'd Deity pursues the chace; 
The scornful damsel shuns his loath'd embrace ; 
In hunting beasts of prey her youth employs; 
And Phojbus rivals in her rural joys. 
With naked neck she goes, and shoulders bare; 
And with a fillet binds her flowing hair. 
By many suitors sought, she mocks their pains, 
And still her vow'd virginity maintains. 
Impatient of a yoke, the name of bride 
She shuns, and hates the joys she never tried. 
On wilds, and woods, she fixes her desire: 
Nor knows what youth, and kindly love, inspire. 






Her father chides her oft: " Thou ow'st," says he, 
« A husband to thyself, a son to me." 
She, like a crime, abhors the nuptial bed: 
She glows with blushes, and she hangs her head. 
Then casting round his neck her tender arms, 
Sooths him with blandishments, and filial charms. 
Give me, my lord," she said, " to live, and die, 
A spotless maid, without the marriage tie. 
'Tis but a small request; I beg no more 
« Than what Dianas father gave before." 
The good old sire was soften d to consent, 
But said her wish would prove her punishment; 
For so much youth, and so much beauty jom'd, 
Oppos'd the state, which her desires design d. 

The God of Light, aspiring to her bed, 
Hopes what he seeks, with flattering fancies fed; 
And as in empty fields the stubble burns, 
Or nightly travellers, when day returns, 
Their useless torches on dry hedges throw, 
That catch the flames, and kindle all the row; 
So burns the god, consuming in desire, 
And feeding in his breast a fruitless fire. 
Her 1 Wd neck he view'd (her neck was bare), 

And on her shoulders her dishevel d hair; 

And on ^ (( what a e 

« Oh were it deck d, said ne, 
« Would every waving curl become her face 
aTSri her eyes, like heav nly lamps that shone, 
He view'd her lips, too sweet to view alone, 
Her taper fingers, and her panting breast; 

He praises all he sees, and for the rest ^ 
S^raTthe wmd! the damsel fled away, 

. Thu rom the wolf the frighten d lamb removes, 

\a « nm nursuing falcons, fearful doves. 
" Md ' ^r;"" and Art* a god ft* loves. 

Or'thou shouldst fall in flying m**f 

Yet tniniv ehpnherds swam am 1. 

« Not basely born, nor shepherd 

.. Me daros, Delphi, Tenedos, obey; 
,. These hands the Patareian seeptre sway. 














« The King of Gods my father: what shall be, 
" Or is, or ever was, in fate, I see. 
Mine is th' invention of the charming lyre; 
Sweet notes, and heav'nly numbers, I inspire. 
Sure is my bow, unerring is my dart; 
But, ah! more deadly his, who pierc'd my heart. 
Med'cine is mine; what herbs and simples grow 
" In fields and forests, all their pow'rs I know; 
" And am the great physician call'd, below. 
" Alas that fields and forests can afford 
" No remedies to heal their love-sick lord! 
To cure the pains of love no plant avails; 
And his own physic, the physician fails." 
She heard not half, so furiously she flies; 
And on her ear th' imperfect accent dies. 
Fear gave her wings; and as she fled, the wind 
Increasing, spread her flowing hair behind; 
And left her legs and thighs expos'd to view: 
Which made the God more eager to pursue. 
The God was young, and was too hotly bent 
To lose his time in empty compliment: 
But led by love, and fir'd with such a sight, 
Impetuously pursu'd his near delight. 
As when th' impatient greyhound slipt from far, 
Bounds o'er the glebe to course the fearful hare', 
She in her speed does all her safety lay; 
And he with double speed pursues the prey; 
She 'scapes, and for the neighb'ring covert strives, 
And, gaining shelter, doubts if yet she lives. 
If little things with great we may compare, 
Such was the God, and such the flying Fair; 
She, urg'd by fear, her feet did swiftly move, 
But he more swiftly, who was urg'd by love. ' 
He gathers ground upon her in the chace: 
Now breathes upon her hair, with nearer pace; 
And just is fast'ning on the wish'd embrace. 
The Nymph grew pale, and in a mortal fright, 
Tir'd with the labonr of so long a flight, 
And now despairing, cast a mournful look 
Upon the streams of her paternal brook : 
" O help," she cried, " in this extremest need! 
If water gods are deities indeed : 
Gape earth, and this unhappy wretch intomb; 
Or change my form, whence all my sorrows come." 
Scarce had she finish'd, when her feet she found 
Benumb'd with cold, and fasten'd to the ground: 
A filmy rind about her body grows ; 
Her hair to leaves, her arms extend to boughs : 





The Nymph is all into a Laurel gone; 

The smoothness of her skin remains alone. 

Yet Phcebus loves her still, and casting round 

Her bole his arms, some little warmth he found. 

The tree still panted in th' unfinish'd part; 

Not wholly vegetive, and heav'd her heart 

He fixt his lips upon the trembling rind; 

It swerv'd aside, and his embrace declin'd. 

To whom the God, t€ Because thou canst not be 

t€ My Mistress, I espouse thee for my Tree: 

" Be thou the prize of honour and renown, 

" The deathless Poet, and the Poe?n y crown. 

" Thou shalt the Roman fejlivals adorn, 

€€ And, after Poets, be by Victors worn. 

" Thou shalt returning Ccesars triumph grace; 

When pomps shall in a long procession pass. 

Wreath' d on the posts before his palace wait ; 
" And be the sacred guardian of the gate. 
" Secure from thunder, and unharmd by Jove, 
" Unfading as tti immortal pow'rs above : 
" And as the locks (^Phcebus are unshorn, 
« So shall perpetual green thy boughs adorn." 
The grateful Tree was pleas'd with what he said, 
And shook the shady honours of her head. 




March 15, the Sweet Violet (Viola odorata), flowers. 

The Violet, although blue, yet partakes of the sombre, suited to the season; and this 
kind is of one uniform colour, without any markings; hence her metamorphosis is thus poeti- 
cally depicted. 

This flower, so fame reports, was once a maid, 

Her name Ianthis, of Diana's train, 

The sweetest Nymph that ever trod the plain, 

Whom, while Pheraean flocks the Virgin fed, 

Apollo saw, and courted to his bed; 

But sued in vain; the timid Virgin fled 

To woods herself, and her complaints she bore, 

And sought Protection from Diana's pow'r, 

Who thus advis'd— " Be sure from mountains fly, 

rf Phcebus loves mountains, and an open sky." 

To vales and shady springs she fled amain, 

Beneath dark thickets sought to hide in vain; 

Phcebus her virtue and her flight admir'd, 

The more the Virgin fled, the more the God was fir'd. 

To Diana did the Nymph again repair, 

When Delia thus—" Since Beauty's such a snare, 



1 I 

99 Ah! rather perish that destructive Grace!" 
And straight with dusky blue she stain'd her face. 
Discoloured thus, an humbler state she prov'd, 
Not now so fair, yet still by Delia lov'd. 
Changed to a Violet, with this praise she meets, 
Persisting chaste, she keeps her former sweets. 


Another species of Violet, the tricolor, has the markings, like the Greek name of the 
renowned warrior Ajax; hence the origin to the poetic fancy of the metamorphofis of that 
great Hero to this flower. 

Ajax, being disappointed of the armour of Achilles, decreed to Ulysses, destroys himself. 
His death is related thus. 


He who could often, and alone, withstand 

The foe, the fire, and Jove's own partial hand, 

Now cannot his unmaster'd grief sustain, 

But yields to rage, to madness, and distain; 

Then snatching out his falchion, V Thou/' said he, 

" Art mine; Ulysses lays no claim to thee. 

" O often tried, and ever trusty sword, 

'* Now do thy last kind office to thy lord : 

'* 'Tis Ajax who requests thy aid, to show 

" None but himself, himself could* overthrow:" 

He said, and with so good a will to die, 

Did to his breast the fatal point apply. 

It found his heart, a way till then unknown, 

Where never weapon entered, but his own. 

No hands could force it thence, so fix'd it stood, 

Till out it rush'd, expell'd by streams of spouting blood. 

The fruitful blood produc'd a Flow'r, which grew 

On a green stem, and of a purple hue: 

Like his, whom unaware Apollo slew: 

Inscribed in both, the letters are the same, 

But those express the grief, and these the name. 


March 20, the Sow-Bread (Cyclamen), flowers. 

This beautiful Flower is of a delicate white, with a little border of purple about the brim of 
its pendulous cup. As it ripens its seeds, the peduncle bends towards the ground more and 
more, until it actually has penetrated into the earth, and deposited her treasures there for the 


ensuing season. 

The gentle Cyclamen, with dewy eye, 
Breathes o'er her lifeless babe the parting sigh ; 
And, bending low to earth, with pious hands, 
Inhumes her dear departed in the sands. 

>///, ■■/ //,,,,, / 

/ 7.V ///// 

(t / //tf.l .Ht//// . 

•//f • / //////'// 

/,. A 


St.'. //. 



" Sweet Nursling! withering in thy tender hour, 
" Oh, sleep," she cries, " and rise a fairer Flower!" 
So when the plague o'er London's gasping crowds 
Shook her dank wing, and steer'd her murky clouds; 
When o'er the friendless bier no rites were read, 
No dirge slow-chanted, and no pall out-spread; 
While Death and Night fill'd up the naked throng, 
And Silence drove their ebon cars along; 
Six lovely daughters, and their father, swept 
To the throng'd grave Cleone saw, and wept; 
Her tender mind, with meek Religion fraught, 
Drank all-resign'd Affliction's bitter draught; 
Alive and listening to the whisper'd groan 
Of others' woes, neglectful of her own, 
One smiling Boy, her last sweet hope, she warms, 
Hush'd on her bosom, circled in her arms, 
Daughter of Woe! ere morn, in vain caress'd, 
Clung the cold babe upon thy milkless breast ; 
With feeble cries thy last sad aid requir'd, 
Stretch'd its stiff limbs, and on thy lap expir'd ! 
Long with wide eye-lids on her child she gaz'd, 
And long to heaven their tearless orbs she rais'd, 
Then with slow step and throbbing heart she found 
Where Chartreufe open'd deep his holy ground ; 
Bore her last treasure through the midnight gloom, 
And kneeling dropt it in the mighty tomb. 


March 30, the Daisy (Bellis perennis) flowers. 

The date of the appearance of flowers is not very exact, as depending upon many circum- 
stances but it enables us to assemble together the chief flowers of the spring, as are marked out 
by poets and to elucidate our comparison of those fiowers to the morning iwihght. Although the 
common Daisy has a tinge of red in its petals, it is so slight, as only to set off in contrast the 
more general white appearance. The rustic Caledonian bard thus paints it. 

To a Daisy, on turning one down with the plough in March 1786. 

Wee, modest, crimson-tipped flow'r, 
Thou's met me in an evil hour; 
For I maun crush among the stoure 

Thy slender stem; 
To spare thee now is past my pow'r, 

Thou bonie gem.* 

. How similar is this to the sentiment of our immortal bard Shakspeare on a grander occasion Othello, jealous ot h.s wrffe, the for 
Desdemona, "solves to kill her. When about to commit the fatal act, upon seeing her, he relinomshes h,s cruel purpose of destrovmg her 
with the sword he held in his hand, but resolves to smother her 


Alas! its no thy neebor sweet, 
The bonie larke, companion meet ! 
Bending thee 'mang the dewy weet! 

Wi' speckl'd breast, 
When upward-springing, blythe, to greet 

The purpling East. 

Cauld blew the bitter-biting North 
Upon thy early humble birth; 
Yet cheerfully thou glinted forth 

Amid the storm, 
Scarce rear'd above the parent earth 

Thy tender form. 

The flaunting flow'rs our gardens yield, 
High shelf ring woods and was maun shield; 
But thou, beneath the random bield 

O' clod or stane, 
Adorns the histie stibble-field, 

Unseen, alane. 

There, in thy scanty mantle clad, 
Thy snawie bosom sun-ward spread, 
Thou lifts thy unassuming head 

In humble guise; 
But now the share uptears thy bed, 

And low thou lies. 


April 1, the Anemony flowers. 

The Wood Anemony (Anemone nemorosa) flowers when the twittering swallow first makes 
her appearance, and still, like the other spring flowers, it presents us with the delicate white 
petal, but much increased in magnitude, and only expands these, according to ancient obser- 

1*11 not shed her blood, 

Nor scar that whiter skin of hers than snow, 
And smooth as monumental alabaster; 
Yet she must die, or she'll betray more men. 
Put out the light, and then 

meaning his resolve to smother her. As Othello approaches the two candles to extinguish them, he falls into the following natural train 
of reflections. 

Put out the light! 

If I quench thee, thou flaming minister, 

I can again thy former light restore, 

Should I repent; but once put out thy light, 

Thou cunning' st pattern of excelling nature, 

I know not where is that Promethean heat, 

That can thy light re-lumine. 

When I have pluck'd thy rose, 

I cannot give it vital growth again; 

It needs must wither. 






vation, when the wind blows, but the fact is, it is of Greek derivation, from its appearance in a 
month subject to a variety of winds. 

All wan and shivering in the leafless glade, 
The sad Anemony reclined her head; 
Grief on her cheeks had paled the roseate hue, 
, And her sweet eye-lids dropp'd with pearly dew. 
w Breathe, gentle air! from cherub-lips impart 
Thy balmy influence to my anguish'd heart; 
Thou, whose soft voice calls forth the tender blooms, 
Whose pencil paints them, and whose breath perfumes; 
*' O chase the Fiend of Frost, with leaden mace, 
Who seals in death-like sleep our hapless race; 
Melt his hard heart, release his iron hand, 
* And give my ivory petals to expand; 
" So may each bud, that decks the brow of spring, 
r * Shed all its incense on thy wafting wing!" 

To her fond prayer propitious Zephyr yields, 
Sweeps on his sliding shell through azure fields, 
O'er her fair mansion waves his whispering wand, 
And gives her ivory petals to expand, 
Gives with new life her filial train to rise, 
And hail with kindling smiles the genial skies* 
So shines the Nymph in beauty's blooming pride, 
When Zephyr wafts her deep calash aside, 
Tears with rude kiss her bosom's gauzy veil, 
And flings her fluttering kerchief to the gale. 
So bright, the folding canopy undrawn, 
Glides the gilt Landau o'er the velvet lawn; 
Of beaux and belles displays the glittering throng, 
And soft airs fan them as they roll along. 


Not many days after the appearance of the swallow, a second Herald of the return of 
Spring comes to us, the Nightingale {Luscinia.) 

Borne on the warm wing of the western gale, 

How tremulously sweet is heard to float 
Through the green budding trees that fringe the vale, 

The early Nightingale's prelusive note. 

'Tis Hope's instinctive power that through the grove 

Tells, how benignant Heaven revives the earth; 
'Tis the soft voice of young and timid love 

That calls these melting sounds of sweetness forth. 

Charlotte Smith. 


April 12, the Cowslip (Primula verisj flowers, when the Cuckoo comes. 

This herb, usually esteemed " as the sweet emblem of renovated Nature," so cheerfully 
culled in every field, rises upon a slender scape, and hangs beautifully its tawny cups upon 
numerous peduncles, which issue from a common centre. 


Now Daisies pied, and Vilets blue, 

And Lady-smocks all silver white, 
And Cuckoo-bads of yellow hue, 

Do paint the meadows with delight; 
And cuckoo now on every tree 
Mocks married men, for thus sings he. 

Cuckoo! Cuckoo!— O word of fear, 

Ungrateful to a married ear! 





Hail, beauteous stranger of the wood, 

Attendant on the Spring! 
Now heaven repairs thy rural seat, 

And woods thy welcome sing. 

Soon as the cowslip decks the green 
Thy certain voice we hear; 

Hast thou a star to guide thy path, 
Or mark the rolling year? 

Delightful visitant! with thee' 

I hail the time of flowers, 
When heaven is fill'd with music sweet 

Of birds among the bow'rs. 

The school-boy, wandering in the wood 

To pull the flowers so gay, 

Starts, thy curious voice to hear, 

And imitates thy lay.* 


• Besides the discovery of the Vaccine Disease as a substitute for the small pox, we are indebted to Dr. Jenner for a very curious and inte- 
history of the Cuckoo. This learned naturalist says the male only has the note of love. Being destined to remain but a short period 
^ CS «r island the hen bird deposits her eggs in another's nest, as if conscious that fate impelled her to fly before the period of their hatching. 
The young Cuckoo follows afterwards, and has a conformation peculiar to itself. There is a hollow on the back, upon which it seats the 
other birds of a different sort, and thus placed, its next step is to raise itself, and turning on one side to shelve the nest, which it enjoys alone. 
When the hollow in the back is no longer wanted, it is filled up, and the young cuckoo is then shaped like other birds. The note of the 
E tt n among the reeds, from a pectinated claw, which it strikes against the reeds, of one of the digitations, is another doubtful point settled 
h th te observation of this illustrious benefactor of mankind, and promoter of the science of natural history. For a full account of these 

Id' coveries vide my work, entitled Facts decisive in favour of the Cow Pox, with the Evidence delivered before the Honourable 
7he Committee of the House of Commons, and the Philosophical Transactions. 

April 16, the Daffodil (Narcissus poeticusj flowers. 

As the spring advances, the Daffodil erects itself on a more elevated peduncle, whose 
flower is pale yellow, and has six petals affixed to a cup-like nectary. From the delicacy of 
these flowers the ancients drew the poetic fancy of a beautiful youth converted into this flower. 

There stands a fountain in a darksome wood, 

Nor stained with falling leaves nor rising mud; 

Untroubled by the breath of winds it rests, 

Unsully'd by the touch of men or beasts ; 

High bow'rs of shady trees above it grow, 

And rising grass and cheerful flow'rs blow. 

Pleas'd with the form and coolness of the place, 

And over-heated by the morning chace, 

Narcissus on the grassy verdure lies, 

But whilst within the chrystal fount he tries 

To quench his heat, he feels new fires arise: 

For as his own bright image he survey'd, 

He fell in love with the fantastic shade; 

And o'er the fair resemblance hung unmov'd, 

Nor knew, proud youth! it was himself he lov'd. 

The well-turn'd neck and shoulders he descries, 

The spacious forehead, and the sparkling eyes ; 

The hand that Bacchus might not scorn to show, 

And hair that round Apollo's head might flow; 

With all the purple youthfulness of face, 

That gently blushes in the wat'ry glass. 

By his own flames consumed the lover lies, 

And gives himself the wound by which he dies. 

To the cold water oft he joins his lips, 

Oft catching at the beauteous shade he dips, 

His arms, as often from himself he slips, 

Nor knows he who it is his arms pursue 

With eager clasps, and loves he knows not who. 

Still o'er the fountain's wat'ry gleam he stood, 

Heedless of sleep, and negligent of food, 

Still view'd his face, and languish'd as he view'd. 

At length he rais'd his head, and thus began 

To vent his griefs, and tell the woods his pain. 

* You trees," cries he, " and thou surrounding grove, 

" Who oft have been the kindly scenes of love, 

" Tell me, if e'er within your shades did lie 

" A youth so tortur'd, so perplex'd as I? 

" I, who before me see the charming fair, 

" Whilst there she stands, and yet she stands not there: 

« In such a maze of love my thoughts are lost, 

« And yet no bulwark'd town, nor distant coast, 






€€ Preserve the beauteous fair from being seen, 

" Nor mountains dire, nor oceans flow between. 

" A shallow water hinders my embrace; 

" And yet the lovely mimic wears a face 

" That kindly smiles; and when I bend to join 

" My lips to hers, she fondly bends to mine. 

Hear, gentle maid, and pity my complaint, 

Come from thy well, thou fair inhabitant. 
€€ My charms an easy conquest have obtained 
" O'er other hearts, by thee alone disdained. 
" But why should I despair? I'm sure she burns 
" With equal flames, and languishes by turns. 
" Whene'er I stoop, she kindly bends to me, 
" And when my arms I stretch, the same does she. 
u Her eye with pleasure on my face she keeps, 
" She smiles my smiles, and when I weep she weeps. 
" When e'er I speak,, her moving lips appear 
" To utter something, which I cannot hear. — 
* € Ah wretched me! I now begin too late 

To find out all the long-perplex'd deceit; 

It is myself I love, myself I see; 
€€ The gay delusion is a part of me. 
S€ I kindle up the fires by which I burn, 
fC And my own beauties from the well return. 
" Whom should I court? how utter my complaint? 

Enjoyment but produces my restraint, 

And too much plenty makes me die for want. 

How gladly would I from myself remove! 

And at a distance set the thing I love. 

My breast is warm'd with such unusual fire, 
t€ I wish him absent whom I most desire. 

And now I faint with grief; my fate draws nigh; 

In all the pride of blooming youth I die. 

Death will the sorrows of my heart relieve. 

Oh might the visionary youth survive, 

I should with joy my latest breath resign ! 
" But oh ! I see his fate involv'd in mine." 

This said, the weeping youth again return'd 
To the clear fountain, where again he burn'd; 
His tears defaced the surface of the well, 
With circle after circle, as they fell : 
And now the lovely face but half appears, 
O'errun with wrinkles, and deform'd with tears. 

Ah whither/' cries Narcissus, " dost thou fly? 
Let me still feed the flame by which I die ; 

Let me still see, though I'm no further blest." 
Then rends his garments off, and beats his breast: 














His naked bosom redden'd with the blow, 
In such a blush as purple clusters show, 
Ere yet the sun's autumnal heats refine 
Their sprightly juice, and mellow it to wine. 
The glowing beauties of his breast he spies, 
And with a new redoubled passion dies. 
As wax dissolves, as ice begins to run, 
And trickle into drops before the sun; 
So melts the Youth, and languishes away, 
His beauty withers, and his limbs decay; 
And none of those attractive charms remain, 
To which the slighted Echo su'd in vain. 
She saw him in his present misery, 
Whom, spight of all her wrongs, she griev'd to see. 
She answer'd sadly to the lover's moan, 
Sigh'd back his sighs, and groan d to every groan; 
Ah youth! belov'd in vain/' Narcissus cries; 
Ah youth! belov'd in vain," the Nymph replies. 
" Farewel," says he; the parting sound scarce fell 
From his faint lips, but she replied cc Farewel." 
Then on th' wholesome earth he gasping lies, 
Till death shuts up those self-admiring eyes. 
To the cold shades his flitting ghost retires, 
And in the Stygian waves itself admires. 
For him the Naiads and the Dryads mourn, 
Whom the sad Echo answers in her turn ; 
And now the Sister-nymphs prepare his urn ; 
When, looking for his corpse, they only found 
A rising Stalky with yellow Blossoms crown d. 




April 20, the Hyacinth (Uyacinthis) flowers. 

This plant, like most of the others of spring extraction, in its wild state, hangs down its 
azure bells, and having a delightful scent, is one of the most agreeable gifts that Providence has 
bestowed upon mortals, whom the enraptured admirer of Flowers thus elegantly invites. 


Child of the Spring, thou charming Flow'r, 

No longer in confinement lie, 
Arise to light, thy form discover, 

Rival the azure of the sky. 

The rains are gone, the storms are o'er; 

Winter retires to make thee way : 
Come then, thou sweetly blooming flow'r ; 

Come, lovely stranger, come away. 

— ■— — — 

The sun is dress'd in beaming smiles, 
To give thy beauties to the day: 

Young zephyrs wait with gentlest gales, 
To fan thy bosom as they play. 



From the plaintive air it assumes in its wild state, arose to the imagination of the poet the 
fancy of a Youth converted into this flower. 

I die, I die, young Hyacinthus said, b 

Sunk on the earth, and droop'd his lovely head. 

Quick to his aid distress'd Apollo flew, 

And round the hero's neck his arms he threw. 

But whilst he held him to his throbbing breast, 

And all the anguish of his soul exprest. 

His polish'd limbs by strange enchantment's pow'r 

Shoot into buds, and blossom into flow'r; 

His auburn locks in verdant foliage flow, 

And wreaths of azure florets shade his brow. 


Although the Hyacinth cannot boast of a vestment of crimson, and variety of stripes yet is 
this flower, from its early appearance, and the eftea that cultivation produces on it made o e 
of the most pleasing gifts proceeding from the Deity. Botanists have usua ly affected to desprse 
double flowers, forgetful that the benevolence of the Almighty is best delayed m such produe- 
tions, and have branded them by the appellation of Meters. They are, however, useful, not 
only as agreeable objects, but scientifically, proving most satisfactorily the doctrme of the sexes 
of plants! for the Hyacinth in its natural state has six Stamina and one P.stdlum, and » pro- 
ductive • the Petals are likewise six; but in a cultivated state the flowers cease to be pendu- 
lous and the Petals are so considerably multiplied, as to constitute the whole of the flower, and 
there is neither Stamina nor Pistillnm, and consequently no propagation by seeds, but merely 
by offsets from the bulbs. The Double White Hyacinth has been denominated La Heroine; 
that which is double and all of a light blue, Globe Terrestre. The D.ana Va N Epheson 
is a double White Hyacinth, with small red spots; and Velour Pubpbe » the dark double 
Blue Hyacinth with green at the edges of the petals; and the Single dark Blue ,s named Don 

u a n„ ™a v;il«l on the soot He was converted into the flower that bears 


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The Rose (Rosa) is esteemed as a Spring Flower, whose attendants have been before de- 
scnbed, and she moves at the head of this long procession of vegetable beauties, pouring out 
her meense to I lor A , with all the graee and dignity of majesty. Nature has given her a vest 
of purest white, and also imperial robes of the brightest searlet; and that no rude hand should 
tear her from her rich domain, she is protected by myriads of soldiers, who present on everv 
side their naked and sharp swords against the daring invader. 

This flower is ranked of the class Polyandria, order Polygynia, of Limueus. 

Not the bright sun-flow Ys top of bumish'd gold, 

The yellow jonquil, vary-colour'd pink, 

The lily dress'd with innocence and grace, 

The wild-born daisy, and the violet blue, 

Or the fair primrose, that at spring's advance 

Seems to grow pale, when from her green lap thrown 

So many glitt'ring rivals rise around; 

Not the sweet twining woodbine, heart's-ease rich 

Purpled with gold-dropt velvet, or the fair, 

But humble snow-drop, beaming through the mist 

Like the big tear for lov'd Adonis slain, 

Through the fring'd eye-lids of the Queen of Love ! 

Catch my admiring eye, like thy pure flow V, 

Emblem of infant innocence, sweet Rose! 


The Red Rose is styled the Queen of Flowers in a charming Arabic Ode* by Hafiz. 

Now is the season, Roses gay 
Light purple-tinctur'd blooms display : 
When fathers thus their sons invite 
To the fair bowers of delight, 
" Time will your sprightliness destroy, 
" Then give the present hours to joy; 

* This translation is from the Latin of Sir William Jones. It is worthy of observation, that the trade from Persia to the East Indies 
consists chiefly of Nightingales in cages, which bird is not to be met with in an v parts of India. 












Assemble all, convivial join, 

The sacred carpet* sell for wine. 

And while you feel the fanning breeze, 

Which whispers through the waving trees, 

Pray, that some damsel here may stray, 

Love the director of her way, 

And to her health and charms divine, 

Quaff goblets of enliv'ning wine. 

Is fortune cruel? Then go suit, 

To querulous complaint, the lute ; 

From the touched strings make music float, 

On air in soft melodious note. 

When first you see in fragrant bowers 

The Rose, resplendent Queen of Flowers! 

Then let the goblets brimful shine, 

With bright nectareous racy wine ! 

Wine can the tender pangs remove, 

And cause forgetfulness in love. 

The sweetly warbling Nightingale^ 

With melody fills every dale. 

How can she cease, sweet bird of Spring! 

'Mid budding Roses perch'd to sing?" 

* The Mahommedans prostrate themselves upon a carpet at the hour of prayer, hence held sacred. 

+ In the East, where every thing is, from the fervor of a lively imagination, painted in hieroglyphic characters, the return 
of the Nightingale from Egypt to Persia, and the flowering of the Rose, as the characteristics of spring, gave rise most proba- 
bly to the hybrid, so frequently described in Oriental poetry. 

Thus the sweet Nightingale in eastern bowers 
On quivering pinion woos the Queen of Flowers; 
Inhales her fragrance, as he hangs in air, 
And melts with melody the blushing fair ;— 
Half-rose, half-bird, a beauteous Monster springs, 
Waves his thin leaves, and clasps his glossy wings. 
Long horrent thorns his slender legs surround, 
And tendril-talons root him to the ground; 
Green films of rind his wrinkled neck o'erspread, 
And crimson petals crown his curled head. 
To the sweet Zephyrs soft warbling as they move 
In songs of love he thrills the vocal grove. 
Departing Evening stays her beamy star, 
And still Night lingers in his ebon car; 
While on white wings descending Houries throng, 
And drink the floods of odour and of song. 


Both the Swallow and Nightingale in the winter months retire to Egypt. Anacreon thus addresses the Swallow. 


Once in each revolving year, 
Gentle bird! we find thee here. 
When Nature wears her summer vest, 
Thou com'st to weave thy simple nest; 
But when the chilling winter lowers, 
Again thou seek'st the genial bowers 
Of Memphis, or the shores of Nile, 
Where constant hours of verdure smile. 

Anacreon thus celebrates the Rose, which it was the custom among the ancients to 
throw into bowls of wine, and make chaplets of to adorn the Bacchanalians. 

Buds of Roses, virgin flowers, 

Cuird from Cupid's balmy bowers, 

In the bowl of Bacchus steep, 

Till with crimson drops they weep, 

Twine the Rose, the garland twine, 

Every leaf distilling wine ; 

Drink and smile, and let us think 

That we were born to smile and drink. 

Rose! thou art the sweetest flower 

That ever drank the purple shower; 

Rose! thou are the fondest child 

Of dimpled Spring, the Wood-Nymph wild ! 

Even the Gods, who walk the sky, 

Are amorous of thy scented sigh. 

Cupid too, in Paphian shades, 

His hair with rosy fillet braids, 

When with the blushing nimble Graces, 

The merry winding dance he traces. 

There is another Ode of Anacreon in praise of the Rose, extremely beautiful, giving an 
account of its birth. 

See the young, the timid Spring 
Gives to the breeze her spangled wing; 
While virgin Graces, w r arm with may, 
Fling Roses o'er her dewy way. 
The murmuring billows of the deep 
Have languished into silent sleep; 
And mark ! the flitting sea-birds lave 
Their plumes in yon reflecting wave ; 
And cranes from hoary winter fly, 
To flutter in a kinder sky ; 
Now the genial star of day 
Dissolves the murky clouds away, 
And cultured field, and winding stream, 
Are sweetly tissued by his beam. 
When Spring bedecks the dewy scene, 
How sweet to walk the velvet green, 


That the Nightingale retires to Egypt is confirmed by Sonnini in his Travels into Upper and Lower Egypt. « I met," 
savs this Traveller " with several Nightingales, who frequent the most shady thickets in the vicinity of the water. They are 

"silent in Egypt, which they leave in spring, to warble out their songs of love, and hail her arrival in other countries." 

The female birds appear with us always a few days before the males are seen. They reach Italy usually on the twenty-fourth 
of March, and visit our isle by the second of April. 

And hear the Zephyr's languid sighs, 

As o'er the scented mead he flies ! 

How sweet to mark the pouting vine, 

Ready to fall in tears of wine! 

How sweet the voice of love to hear, 

And softly whisper in the ear. 

Where the embowering Roses meet, 

Oh ! is not this divinely sweet ? 

While thus we chaunt the wreathed Spring, 

Resplendent Rose! to thee we'll sing; 

Resplendent Rose, the flower of flowers, 

Whose breath perfumes Olympus' bowers ; 

Whose virgin blush, of chasten'd dye, 

Enchants so much our mortal eye. — 

When pleasure's bloomy season glows, 

The Graces love to twine the Rose; 

The Rose is warm Di one's bliss! 

And flushes like Di one's kiss! 

Oft has the Poet's magic tongue 

The Rose's fair luxuriance sung; 

And long the Muses, heav'nly maids, 

Have rear'd it in their tuneful shades, 

When, at the early glance of morn, 

It sleeps upon the glittering thorn. 

'Tis sweet to dare the tangled fence, 

To cull the timid flowret thence, 

And wipe with tender hand away 

The tear that on its blushes lay. 

'Tis sweet to hold the infant stems, 

Yet dropping with Aurora's gems, 

And fresh inhale the spicy sighs 

That from the weeping buds arise. 

When revel reigns, when mirth is high, 

And Bacchus beams in every eye, 

Our rosy fillets scent exhale, 

And fill with balm the panting gale ! 

Oh! there is nought in nature bright, 

Where Roses do shed their light! 

When morning paints the orient skies, 

Her fingers burn with roseate dyes! 

The nymphs display the Rose's charms, 

It mantles o'er their graceful arms; 

Through Cytherea's form it glows, 

And mingles with the living snows !_ 

Oh! Whence could such a plant have sprung! 

Attend, for thus the tale is sung. 

When, rising from the silvery stream, 
Effusing beauty's warmest gleam, 
Venus f appear'd, in flushing hues, 

Mellow'd by ocean's briny dews ; 

When, in the starry courts above, 

The pregnant brain of mighty Jove 

Disclos'd the Nymph of azure glance, 

The Nymph who shakes the martial lance. + 

Then, then, in strange eventful hour, 

The Earth § produced an infant flower, 

Which sprung, with blushing tinctures drest, 

And wanton d o'er its parent's breast. — 

The Gods beheld this brilliant birth, 

And hail'd the Rose, the boon of earth. 

With nectar drops, a ruby tide, 

The sweetly orient buds they dy'd ; 

f Anacreon, with exquisite grace, in another Ode describes this birth of Venus, and represents the goddess as swimming on the 
soft wave. 

Light as the leaf, that summer's breeze 

Has wafted o'er the glassy seas, 

She floats upon the ocean's breast, 

Which undulates in sleepy rest, 

And stealing on, she gently pillows 

Her bosom on the amorous billows; 

Her bosom, like the humid rose, 

Her neck, like dewy-sparkling snows, 

Illume the liquid path she traces, 

And burn within the stream's embraces! 

In languid luxury soft she glides, 

Encircled by the azure tides; 

Then, from their Queen's inspiring glance. 

The Dolphins o'er the green sea dance, 

Bearing in triumph young Desire, 

And baby Love with smiles of fire. 

While, sparkling on the silver waves, 

The tenants of the briny caves 

Around the pomp in eddies play, 

And gleam along the watery way. Moore. 

This is certainly more beautiful than the usual delineation of Venus rising up out of the sea. 

With rosy fingers, as uncurl'd they hung 
Round her fair brow, her golden locks she wrung; 
O'er the smooth surge on silver sandals stood, 
And look'd enchantment on the dazzled flood. 
The bright drops, rolling from her lifted arms, 
In slow meanders wander o'er her charms, 
Seek round her snowy neck their lucid track, 
Pearl her white shoulders, gem her ivory back, 
Round her fine waist and swelling bosom swim, 
And star with glittering brine each crystal limb. 
Th' immortal form enamour'd Nature hail'd, 
And Beauty blaz'd to heaven and earth unveil'd. 


+ Pallas, or Minerva, the Goddess of Wisdom, is represented as proceeding from the brain of Jove, completely armed. For the origin 
of the fable of Venus arising from the sea, vide our Philosophy of Botany, page 134; and for this fable, note * to the Verses on the 
Nymphea Nelumbo, by Sir William Jones, who describes the birth of Maia, the Minerva of the Asiatics. " She is represented with blue 
eyes," says Bacon, " to shew the soft persuasion of words ; and all armed, with a shield covered with snakes, to express the pathetic 
power of all-overcoming eloquence. Her bird is the owl, to point out the sedateness of wisdom." 

§ When the Sea produced Fenus-, Jupiter Minerva; then the Earth produced the Rose. How exquisite the compliment ! 




And bade them bloom, the flowers divine 

Of him * who sheds the teeming vine ; 

And bade them on the spangled thorn 

Expand their bosom to the morn. 


Sappho,, the Lesbian Poetess, gives us another origin, and elegantly represents the white 
rose as converted into the red, from the emotions of the heart suffusing the face of love. 

If Jove would give the leafy bowers 
A queen for all their world of flowers, 
The Rose would be the choice of Jove, 
And reign the queen of every grove. 
Sweetest child of weeping morning, 
Gem, the vest of earth adorning, 
Eye of flow'rets, glow of lawns, 
Bud of beauty, nurs'd by dawns: 
Soft the soul of love it breathes, 
Cypria's brow with magic wreaths ; 
And to the Zephyr s warm caresses 
Diffuses all its verdant tresses, 
Till, glowing with the wanton's play, 

It blushes a diviner ray! 


The origin of the red rose is differently accounted for by Catullus, who describes it as 
proceeding from the blood of Venus falling upon the white rose, as her tender feet were torn 
by its thorns in attempting to rescue Adonis from the jealous resentment of Mars. 

While the enamour'd queen of joy 

Flies to protect her lovely boy, 
On whom the jealous war-god rushes ; 

She treads upon a thorny rose, 

And, while the wound with crimson flows, 
The snowy flow' ret feels her blood, and blushes. 



The Rose, as well as the Vine, was consecrated to Bacchus, and the ancients not only crowned themselves with roses, but cast them 
into the bowl. Vide note * on the Nymphea Nelumbo. 

They wove the Lotus band to deck 

And grace with sweets the blooming neck ; 

And every guest, to shade his head, 

Three charming little chaplets spread ; 

And one was of Egyptian leaf, 

The rest were roses, fair and brief. 

Then from the sparkling vase profound 

To all on flow'ry beds around, 

A sprightly Nymph of heavenly shape, 

Pour'd the rich weepings of the grape. 


Tempora sectilibus cinguntur tota coronis, 
Et latet injecta splendida mensa rosa. 


The fugaciousness of the charm* nf //, 
enjoying the present hour. ™ ** made with the a ^ients* a reason for 


Y E flow'rs that drink the morning dew, 

Roses, that court the sunny ray 
Connubial leagu'd, your tribes renew, 

And bid them all their charms display. 

Bid them to shine the parterre's pride, 
Or on the fragrant hedge-row gleam, 

Or bending from the green-bank side, 
Kiss their own beauties in the stream. 

Ah! why should they, a fading race, 
Be niggard of their sweetest bloom? 

That earth, whence they shall rise in grace, 
That earth shall soon become their tomb. 

Another Archer lies unseen ; 

Ne'er from their mark his arrows stray- ' 
And Im> e shall drop his arrows keen, 

And leave to Death a trembling prey. 

Thus Man his proudest glory shews ; 

Thus soon his proudest glory dies; 
Like the young plant awhile he glows ; 

Like the frail flow'r lives, shines, and dies. 

* "Let U s « and drink , for <„__ ^ ^ „ ^ fa ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

The women tell me every day, 
That all my bloom has past away. 
' Behold/ the pretty wantons cry, 

• Behold this mirror with a sig-h ; 

* The locks upon thy brow are few, 
'And, like the rest, are withering too!' 
Whether decline has thinn'd my hair, 
I'm sure I neither know nor care; 

But this I know, and this I feel, ' 

As onward to the tomb 1 steal, 

That still as death approaches nearer, 

The joys of life are sweeter, dearer; 

And had I but an hour to live, 
That little hour to bliss I'd give! 
Then surely, Care, thou can'st not twine 
Thy fetters round a soul like mine; 
No, no! the heart that feels with me, 
Can never be a slave to thee! 
And oh! before the vital thrill, 
Which trembles at my heart, is still, 
I'll gather joy's luxuriant flow'rs, 
And yield with bliss my fading hours; 
Venus shall make my winter bloom, 
And Bacchus dance me to the tomb. 


Hear then the Muse— Thou short-liv'd race, 

Urge not your fleeting hours away, 
Crowd not with cares your little space ; 

Wise is the man who lives his day. 

George Dyer. 

la the 4«duLL. or marriage song, A»ac..on compares the brideto the ,«£.; 
to that sort, I suppose, which has atnong us the common appellat.on of the Jfeta . ** 

To thee, the Queen* of nymphs divine, 
Fairest of all that fairest shine! 
To thee, thou blooming young Desire,f 
Who ruVst the world with darts of fire! 
And oh! thou Nuptial Tower, % to thee 
Who bear st of life the guardian key ! 
Breathing my soul in fragrant praise, 
And weaving wild my votive lays, 
To thee, Queen! I wake the lyre, 
To thee, thou blushing young Desire! 
And oh! for thee, thou Nuptial Power! 
Come and illume this genial hour. 
Look on thy bride, impassion'd boy! 
And while thy lambent glance of joy 
Plays over all her blushing charms, 
Delay not; snatch her to thine arms, 
Before the lovely, trembling prey, 
Like a young birdling, wings away. 
Oh, Statocles! impassion'd youth! 
Dear to the Queen of amorous truth, 
And dear to her, whose yielding zone 
Will soon resign her all thine own ; 
Turn to Myrilla, turn thine eye, 
Breathe to Myrilla, breathe thy sigh! 
To those bewitching beauties turn, 
For thee they mantle, flush, and burn !— 
Not more the Rose, the queen of flowers, 
Out-blushes all the glow of bowers, 
Than she unrivall'd bloom discloses, 
The sweetest Rose, where all are Roses!— 
Oh! may the Sun,§ benignant, shed 
His blandest influence o'er thy bed ; 
And foster there an infant tree, 

To blush like her, and look like thee. % 


+ CuDid X Hymen. § Apollo. 

* Venus * . £ J , * ' t v„ u pl 4 wrMm took home his wife in the dusk of the evening, accompanied 

V After the feast, which was held at ^ lf^^ ^ZlZllrc^, and music. In this way they were conducted to 
by all the relatious on both stdes, and a «J rf ^* m ^ ^ ^ The attendants left the 

the marriage-chamber, where the bade washed her fee f^^JJ . aX J concluding with the wish of the inheritance of 
room ; when the Epithalamium or Nuptial Song, was sung .n honour * *e P . 1 8 ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^^ 

children. The same ceremony was also m use among the Jews, rsalm al,v 6 

to the Rose of Sharon. 

The married are resembled by Metastasio to the young Rose, which the lover places 
in the bosom of his mistress, first stript of thorns. 

Thou virgin Rose! whose op'ning leaves so fair, 

The dawn has nourish'd with her balmy dews; 
While softest whispers of the morning air 

Call'd forth the blushes of thy vermeil hues. 

That cautious hand, which cropt thy youthful pride, 

Transplants thy honours, where from hurt secure, 
Stript of each thorn offensive to thy side, 

Thy nobler part alone shall bloom mature. 

Thus thou, a flower, exempt from change of skies, 
By storms and torrents unassail'd, shall rise, 

And scorn the winter colds, and summer heats: 
A guard more faithful then thy growth shall tend, 
By whom thou may'st in tranquil union blend 

Eternal beauties with eternal sweets. 



Sacred to beauty's Queen, hail lovely flow'r! 
How sweet the fragance of thy scented bow'r! 
In graceful folds thy milk-white vestments flow, 
Or a pale blush o'erspreads thy modest brow. 
Round thy fair form what crowds of flatt'rers stand; 
Praise thy fine shape, and court thy snowy hand. 
Ah, simple maid! thy charms will soon decay, 
Will fade and wither at the close of day! 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 

The decay of the charms of the Rose very properly leads to serious and moral reflections. 


The pride of ev'ry grove I chose, 
The Violet sweet, and Lily fair, 

The dappled Pink, and blushing Rose, 
To deck my charming Chloe's hair. 

At morn the nymph vouchsaf d to place 
Upon her brow the various wreath ; 

The flow'rs less blooming than her face, 
The scent less fragrant than her breath. 


The flow'rs she wore along the day: 
And ev'ry nymph and shepherd said, 

4 That in her hair they look'd more gay 
' Than growing in their native bed.' 

Undrest at ev'ning, when she found 
Their odours lost, their colours past; 

She chang'd her look, and on the ground 
Her garland and her eye she cast. 

That eye dropt sense distinct and clear, 
As any Muse's tongue could speak; 

When from its lid a pearly tear 

Kan trickling down her beauteous cheek. 

Dissembling what I knew too well, 
4 My Love, my Life,' said I, \ explain 

4 This change of humour; pr'ythee tell: 
4 That falling tear, what does it mean?' 

She smil'd, she sigh'd ; and to the flow'rs 
Pointing, the lovely Moralist said: 

4 See, friend ! in some few fleeting hours, 
4 See yonder, what a change is made. 

6 What though each Grace around me play, 
4 Each Beauty bloom for you ; 

4 Warm as the blush of rising May, 
4 And sparkling as the dew: 

' Ah me! the blooming pride of May, 
' And that of Beauty are but one: 

4 At Morn both flourish bright and gay, 
4 Both fade at Ev'ning, pale and gone. 

4 So pass the Beauties of our prime, 

4 That e'en in blooming die ; 
1 So, shrinking at the blast of Time, 

' The treach'rous Graces fly. 


And to the following. 

Awake, my fair, the morning springs, 
The dew-drops glance around; 

The heifer lows, the blackbird sings, 
The echoing vales resound. 

The simple sweets would Stella taste, 
That breathing morning yields; 

The fragrance of the flow'ry waste, 
And freshness of the fields: 

By uplands, and the greenwood-side, 

We'll take our early way, 
And view the valley spreading wide, 

And opening with the day. 

Nor uninstructive shall the scene 

Unfold its charms in vain ; 
The fallow brown, the meadow green, 

The mountain and the plain. 

Each dew-drop glist'ning on the thorn, 

And trembling to its fall ; 
Each blush that paints the Rose of morn 

In fancy's ear shall call: 

1 O ye, in youth and beauty's pride, 

1 Who lightly dance along ; 
1 While laughter frolics at your side, 

* And rapture tunes your song ! 

1 What though each grace around you play, 

1 Each beauty bloom for you ; 
4 Warm as the blush of rising day, 

4 And sparkling as the dew : 

' The blush that glows so gaily now, 

4 But glows to disappear ; 
1 And, quiv'ring from the bending bough, 

4 Soon breaks the pearly tear ! 

1 So pass the beauties of your prime, 

1 That e'en in blooming die ; 
1 So, shrinking at the blast of time, 

1 The treach'rous graces fly. 

1 Let those, my Stella, slight the strain, 

4 Who fear to find it true ; 
4 Each fair, of transient beauty vain, 

6 And youth as transient too ! 


1 With charms that win beyond the sight, 

' And hold the willing heart, 
4 My Stella shall await their flight, 

4 Nor sigh when they depart. 

• Still graces shall remain behind, 

4 And beauties still controul 

4 The graces of the polish'd mind, 

1 And beauties of the soul. 



h ruit of Aurora's tears, fair Rose! 

On whose soft leaves fond Zephyrs play, 
Queen of flow' rs ! thy buds disclose, 

And give thy fragrance to the day: 

Unveil thy transient charms: — Ah, no! 

A little be thy bloom delay 'd, 
Since the same hour that bids thee blow, 

Shall see thee droop thy languid head! 

But go, and on Themira's breast, 

Find, happy flower! thy throne and tomb; 
While, jealous of a fate so blest, 

How shall I envy thee thy doom! 

Should some rude hand approach thee there, 
Guard the sweet shrine thou wilt adorn: 

Ah, punish those who rashly dare, 
And for my rivals keep thy thorn. 

Love shall himself thy boughs compose, 
And bid thy wanton leaves divide ; 

He'll shew thee how, my lovely Rose, 
To deck her bosom, not to hide. 

And thou shalt tell the cruel maid 

How frail are Youth and Beauty s charms ; 

And teach her, ere her own shall fade, 
To give them to her lover s arms. 

From the French of Cardinal de Bernis, 
by Charlotte Smith. 








Oweet ROSE, Aurora's early care, 

Gay pride of Flora's reign, 
See hov'ring Zephyrs fan the air, 

Thy balmy kiss to gain. 

Say shall we greet the smiling hour, 

Or wish that hour delay 'd, 
Which dooms thee happy, hapless, flow'r, 

To flourish, and to fade? 

Come then, and on my Chloes breast 
Expand thy loveliest bloom; 

On such an iv'ry throne too blest, 
Too blest with such a tomb! 


And while you all her charms adorn, 
Assert thy cause and mine\ 

At ev'ry rival point the thorn, 
And guard that breast divine. 

Cupid, his own sweet couch to deck, 

Shall all his art supply ; 
Teach thee to shade her lovely neck, 

Yet guide a lover's eye : 

And fadi?ig warn a Nymph so coy, 
Ere Time impairs her charms, 

" To crown his fleeting hours with joy, 
And bless her Lover's arms." 

George Morland. 

— — 



How art thou chang'd, once blooming tree! when last 
Amid these paths I gave my feet to stray, 
Cherish'd by gales, and show'rs, and summer's ray, 

Fair didst thou flourish.... But thy hour is past ; 

And, scatter'd by the fury of the blast, 

Thy blushing flow'rs, the gift of rosy May, 
Thy buds, and verdant leaves, are whirl'd away, 

And all thy honours to the earth are cast.... 

Ah! yet a little, and the breath of Spring 

Shall crown thee with fresh flow'rs; again shall bring 
Fragrance to thy buds, and new-born bloom 

Again shall fan thee with propitious wing. 

But oh! what Spring shall dawn upon the gloom 
That pensive thinks upon the silent tomb? 



Mark yon Hose, once Summer's darling pride, 

That threw its blooming odours far and wide, 

Now all its bright, its blushing honours past ; 

Too dazzling fair, alas ! and sweet to last. 

But yet, though scatter'd be each silken leaf 

By cruel Time, that sad despoiling thief, 

Still from those leaves exhale a rich perfume; 

Still they are sweet, though they have ceas'd to bloom. 

So lov'd remembrances of joys long fled 

O'er the sad heart their soothing influence shed: 

While in the breast is saved each wither'd leaf 

Of past delight,... to sooth its present grief. 

Mary Pye. 


'*- - ■', ■ 




Otern Winter hence with all his train removes, 
And cheerful skies and limpid streams are seen; 

Thick sprouting foliage decorates the groves, 
Reviving herbage robes the fields with green. 

God of day* whose genial power 

Revives the buried seed, 
That fills with foliage ev'ry bower, 

With verdure ev'ry mead, 

Bid all thy vernal breezes fly, 
Diffusing mildness through the sky; 
Give the soft season to our drooping plains, 
Refreshed with rosy dew and salutary rains. 

Enough has Winters hand severe 

Chastis'd this dreary coast; 
And chill'd the tender dawning year 

With desolating frost. 

Give but thy vital beams to play, 
These ice-wrought scenes will melt away, 
And mix'd in sprightly dance, the blooming powers 
Will wake the drowsy Spring; the Spring the flowers. 
In virtue then let's emulate the blest above, 
And like the Spring display benevolence and love. 


* Apollo. 




Mild Season of the infant Year! 
Soon as thy tender buds appear, 

I feel my bosom glow; 
It glows, to see thy germs of life, 
Spite of each elemental strife, 

Burst through surrounding snow. 

With joy, beneath thy influence bland, 
I mark each vernal leaf expand, 

Presageful of the bloom; 
The livelier tint of ev'ry bow'r, 
The daily growth of ev'ry flow'r, 

Each exquisite perfume. 

Now, grateful for the genial skies, 
To Heaven the mingled odours rise, 

And bring it's blessings down; 
An added vigour, ev'ry day, 
A richer foliage, boasts each spray, 

Nor dreads the tempest's frown. 

Know, Spring! though winds tyrannic join, 
And all the elements combine, 

Thy progress to dispute; 
The humblest plant, by Heav'n decreed 
To live for ever in it's seed, 

Shall never fail of fruit. 





Blest Season! thy benignant pow'r 
Extend to ev'ry Human Flow'r, 

And aid the growth of Mind; 
Till, vigour crowning ev'ry part, 
The richer incense of the heart 

Bring bliss for all mankind. 

Then, though the stormy Passions blow, 
Impelling Man to prove Man's foe, 

On War's * destructive plain ; 
Reason the Nations shall address, 
The sanguinary rage repress, 

And Peace Perpetual reign. 


* This work was brought out during one of the most cruel wars that ever desolated the world, in which it was decreed by the 
National Assembly of France, " that no English prisoners were to be made, but all put to the sword." The army refused to ratify it. 
Now it is that NAPOLEON, not content with the Empire of France, endeavours to conquer the whole of civilized Europe. 

One murder makes a villain, 

Millions a hero.— Princes are privileg'd 

To kill; and numbers sanctify the crime. 

Ah! why will Kings forget that they are men? 

Why delight in human sacrifice? why burst the ties 

Of nature, that should knit their souls together 

In one soft bond of amity and love ? 

Yet still they breathe destruction, still go on 

Inhumanly ingenious to find out 

New pains for life, new terrors for the grave; 

Artificers of death ! Still Monarchs dream 

Of universal empire growing up 

From universal ruin. — Blast the design, 

Great God of Hosts! nor let thy creatures fall 

Unpitied victims at ambitions shrine. 

Bishop Porteus. 

Such conduct in mortal man is, indeed, truly astonishing. " Man, armed with a little brief authority, does that, which makes 
angels weep!" 

Behold! how God denounces his vengeance against such Destroyers of Mankind. 

Worthy to he read by all Emperors, Kings, Princes, and Rulers. 
« The whole earth is at rest, and is quiet; the trees break forth into a joyful shout, even the fir-trees rejoice over thee, and the 
cedars of Lebanon, saying, Since thou art fallen, no feller is come up against us. 

- How art thou fallen from heaven, O APOLLYON, the destroyer! How art thou cut off from the earth, thoujho didst subdue 
the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, < I will be like the Most High.'-Yet art thou brought down to the mansions ot the 

dead, and to the sides of the pit. •■-••« > r™ j *■» u 

« Then will it be said, ' Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that shook the k.ngdoms? That made the world as a 

wilderness, and destroyed the cities?' ... , . 77 

•• All Ihe li"g. of the Mk. lie in glory, ever, on. in bu> own -pnlcbr.. Bnt ,l.°u not „« ont of ,l,y g»vo lto . .!»-». 

SLAIN THE PEOPLE." Isaiah, Chap. XIV. 






Spring! thy impatient bloom restrain, 
Nor wake so soon thy genial pow'r, 

For deeds of death must hail thy reign, 
And clouds of fate around thee low'r. 

Ah ! not in all thy store of charms 

Can gen'rous hearts their comfort find, 

Or lull to peace the dread alarms 

Which rack the friends of human kind. 

In vain thy balmy breath to me 

Scents with its sweets the ev'ning gale ; 

In vain the violet's charms I see, 
Or fondly mark thy primrose pale. 

To me thy softest zephyrs breathe 
Of sorrow's soul-distracting tone, 

To me thy most attractive wreath 

Seems ting'd with human blood alone. 

Arrest thy steps, thou source of love, 
Thou genial friend of joy and life ! 

Let not thy smile propitious prove 

To works of carnage, scenes of strife. 

Bid Winter all his frowns recall, 
And back his icy footsteps trace ; 

Again the soil in frost inthrall, 

And check the War-fiend's murd'rous chace. 

Ah fruitless prayer! thy hand divine 
Must on the teeming season lead, 

And (contrast dire!) at war's red shrine 
Must let unnumber'd victims bleed. 







Hear ye yon Bell, its sullen sound that flings 

In solemn cadence o'er the echoing vale?— 
To every ear a gloomy thought it brings, 

Mirth laughs no more, e'en Valour's spirits fail- 
But hark! the knell is drown'd-tempestuous floats 

On the swoln breeze the tumult of the war; 
Shrill sound the cheering trumpet's martial notes, 

And loud the battery thunders from afar: 

With kindling flame reviving Valour hears, 

Strong beats his breast ; while e'en the coward slave, 

Stung by the rousing peal, forgets his fears, 
Pants for the field, and fancies he is brave. 

Oh say, why this, ye wise!-the death-bell shows 

What Fate has done; not urges Fate's decrees- 
Marks but one victim snatch'd from human woes, 
Bent by chill age, perhaps, or pale disease. 

But shouting squadrons at the trumpet's breath 
O'er mangled thousands urge their furious way; 

The thundering battery sweeps to instant death 
Its slaughters myriads from the light of day. 

Not worn with pain, not struck by palsied age, 

The ripen' d harvest of the greedy tomb; 
Timeless they fall in manhood's glowing prime, 

Health's vigorous hour, or youth's ingenuous bloom! 

Henry James Pye, 







How mild the Sun's meridian rays! 

How blue the Heavens! how soft the Breeze 
That o'er the waving forest plays, 
And gently curls the ripling seas! 
But soon Novembers wint'ry hour, 
Arm'd with the Tempest's tyrant power, 
Shall rouse the clouds' embattled host, 
Sweep from the woods their leafy pride, 
And dash the wave's infuriate tide 
Against the howling coast! 

So in each Ship's stupendous womb, 
Now gently floating on the deep, 
Peaceful, as in the silent tomb 
The Demons of Destruction sleep ; 
But wak'd by Wars terrific roar, 
Prompt o'er each desolated shore 
Their ^/-directed flight to urge, 
And leading Slaughter's horrid train, 
With hecatombs of warriors slain, 
To load th' empurpled surge ! 

What though at warlike Gallia's chiefs * 
The spear of vengeance Britain aims, 

" " " r i ■ a LlV nf war Thev only consider it as a natural evil, 

* It is really astonishing to think with what CO,*** f^^J^^Ziy, that cannot he said, of the Best of Beinos 
and that Almichtv Goo wiUs it, and, therefore, "1*^1^1 evil, whieh arises out of the human Heart alone, , a want 
w hich one would be ashamed to to the worst - d ^ * a enorant ambition of rulers, forgetful of the people s good, 
of judgment and of reason. The origin o ^wars proceed fromthe ^nora ^ climatE8> whereby the 

V*. natural world, our bountiful <feM ^^^S^jU ^products, so that by exciting a reciprocal 
inhabitants of different countries may supply **££££ \ nd Zversally benevolent. 

■ a f„, thrv mav carrv on an intercourse mutually beneficial, anaun j difference of talents; and, if I maybe 

" N Tmor % evl wherl there is no remarkable difference of soil or of climates, « *£F5X2L of latitude between Norwich 
allowed The pression, a wonderful variety of strata in the human n^-fhus *£JjLfc use of in both places, wool, flax, and silk, 
tTmleJr, and the variation of soil, are ^^JS^SSS. SSL* which are thousands of miles apart could 
are just the same; yet so different : « JPfrJSKI the c pitals of two neighbouring kingdoms instead of to. and 
haraly exhibit a greater contrast. -Now had Norwicl and Mane '^ been J progn0 sticated, that the flourishing state of the one 
union, we should have heard of nothing but ^'"J^^^^^t^d in the most doleful accents, concerning the, 
portended the downfal of the other; each would have had the r ^pecive P te were in any degree popular, each would 

own loss of trade, and of the tomidableprogr^ ^^^^1 .. L^> est C.kth.oo."-" We must destroy our 

jSTS^W^ - S= - for either of them to have gone to war than there is at 

present. ,. . „ fhpv mieht p i ain ly see, that there is no one argument for inducing different 

P In short, if mankind would but open their eyes, hey "J^g '»' country, town, village, nay, and every shop among our- 
nations to figlt for the sake of trade, but which woiM j^H^-JJJJ ^ . $ ^ ^ of ^ or adv antage 
selves, to be engaged in civil and intestine ■wan > for ' >'^ a ™ Znent from these unnatural and foolish contests, but which would con- 
ai^^iSSS SlSPSSL makilg war with each other on the like pretext. 





Shall she not mourn the PEOPLE'S griefs, 
Their dying sons, their weeping dames? — 
Nor shall she ev'n with tearless eye 
Yon gallant Navy e'er descry 

Returning o'er the western flood, 

For, ah ! the laurel's greenest bough 
That ever crown'd Victorias brow 
Is surely ting'd with blood! 

Though blaze the splendid fires around, 

Though Arcs of Triumph proudly rise, 
Though Fame her loudest Paean sound, 
And notes of Conquest rend the skies, — 
Alas ! in some sequester d cell 
Her slaughter'd lover's funeral knell 
In every shout the Virgin hears ! 
And as the strain of victory flows, 
More swell the widow'd Matrons woes, 
And faster fall her tears ! 

Though from this clifF while Fancy views 

Yon squadrons darken half the main, 
She dress in Glory's brightest hues 
The pride of Albion's naval reign, 
Yet, as Reflection's mirror shows 
Th' attendant scene of death and woes, 
Th' exulting hopes of conquest cease, 
She turns from Wars delusive form 
To deprecate th' impending storm, 

And breathes her vows for PEACE, f 

Henry James Pye, Poet Laureat. 

Moreover, the instinct of curiosity, and the thirst of novelty, which are so universally implanted in human nature, whereby various 
nations and different people so ardently wish to be customers to each other, is another proof that the curious manufactures of one nation 
will never want a vent among the richer inhabitants of another, provided they are reasonably cheap and good; so that the richer one nation 
is the more it has to spare, and the more it will certainly lay out on the produce and manufactures of its ingenious neighbour.— Do you 
object to this? Do you envy the wealth, or repine at the prosperity, of the nations around you?— If you do, consider what is the con- 
sequence, viz. that you wish to keep a shop, but hope to have only beggars for your customers. 

As things are thus constituted by God, it is really astonishing to think with what applause and eclat the feats of conquerors, in- 
human monsters! are transmitted down, in all the pomp of prose and verse, to distant generations: nay, let a prince but feed his 
subjects with the empty diet of military fame, it matters not what he does besides, in regard to themselves as well as others; for the 
lives and liberties, and every thing that can render society a blessing, are willingly offered up as a sacrifice to this idol, glory.— 
Were the facts to be examined into, you would find, perhaps without a single exception, that the greatest conquerors abroad have 
proved the heaviest tyrants at home. —However, as victorxr, like charity, covereth a multitude of sins, thus it comes to pass that reason- 
able beings will be content to be slaves themselves, provided they may enslave others; and while the people can look up to the glorious 
hero on the throne, they will be dazzled with the splendour that surrounds him, and forget the deeds of the oppressor. Vide our Philo- 
sophy of Politics, chapter on War, vol. ii. p. 83. 

+ How sweetly does the poet endeavour to bring kings and people to a right knowledge respecting War, depicting the miseries it creates 
in language that cannot fail to move the heart, and at the moment of expected victory deplores its bloody trophies, and "breathes the 
vow for PEACE !" Yet I hope it will be understood, that neither the Poet Laureat, nor myself, wish to inculcate pusillanimity. « Dulce 
et decorum est pro patria mori."— We deplore only that ambition and folly in rulers which create Wars, from jealousy of trade, or for 
territorial aggrandisement! 










From our Queen, centered upon the throne, are seen to radiate every heavenly virtue. How 
pathetically and eloquently does this virtuous princess, equally adored now as then, plead for 
her Native Land, to the King of Prussia, forcibly depicting to him the real horrors of War! 

To his Majesty the King of Prussia. 

May it please your Majesty, 

I am at a loss, whether I should congratulate, or condole with you, on your 

late victory; since the same success, which hath covered you with laurels, has overspread the 

country of Mecklenburgh with desolation. I know, Sire, that it seems unbecoming my Sex, in 

this age of vicious refinement, to feel for one's country, to lament the horrors of war, even to wish 

for the return of peace. I know you may think it more properly my province to study the arts of 

pleasing, or to inspect subjects of a more domestic nature. But however unbecoming it may be 

in me, I cannot resist the desire of interceding for this unhappy people. 

It was but a few years ago, that this territory wore the most pleasing appearance; the country 
was cultivated, the peasant looked cheerful, and the towns abounded with riches and festivity. 
What an alteration, at present, from so charming a scene ! I am not expert at description, nor 
can my fancy add any horrors to the picture; but these are such that even conquerors themselves 
would weep at the hideous prospects now before me ! 

The whole country (my dear country!) lies one frightful waste, presenting only objects to 
excite terror, pity, and despair. The business of the husbandman and the shepherd are quite 
discontinued. The husbandman and the shepherd are become soldiers themselves, and help to 



ravage the soil they formerly cultivated. The towns are inhabited only by old men, women, and 
children-— perhaps here and there a warrior, by wounds or loss of blood rendered unfit for service, 
left at his door; his little children hang around, ask an history of every wound, and grow them- 
selves soldiers before they find strength for the field. But this were nothing, did we not feel the 
alternate insolence of either army, as it happens to advance or retreat in pursuing the operations 
of the campaigns. It is impossible to express the confusion which even those who call them- 
selves our friends create. Even those from whom we might expect redress, oppress us with new 
calamities. From your high station, therefore, it is that we expect relief. To you, even women 
and children may complain, whose humanity stoops to the meanest petition, and whose power 
is capable of repressing the greatest injustice. 


Princess of Mecklenburgh-Strditz. 

The same just and benevolent Sentiments, which do honour to both the head and heart, 

to suit this work, are here clothed in a poetic dress. 


While conquest seats you on the throne of fame, 

And martial deeds immortalize your name, 

On burnish'd arms, while glory brightly beams, 

And fields victorious fill the monarch's dreams; 

Trembling I view whence all that glory springs 

Which crowns the awful brows of hero-kings; 

Shock'd I behold the source whence dart those rays 

Which shine on victors, and round conqu'rors blaze; 

And fondly anxious, praises to bestow, 

Reluctant swell the stream of general woe; 

For e'en those laurels which your brows entwine, 

Your triumphs crown, and bid your conquests shine, 

Meant as immortal trophies to adorn, 

Were from my country's bleeding bowels torn. 

While, in what's truly brave, and greatly bold, 

You outstrip heroes dignify'd of old; 

My native Mecklenburgh, a prey to arms, 

In desolation finds her ruin'd charms : 

No more her plains their plenteous verdure yield, 

No longer Ceres decks the golden field; 

Through all her bounds dark scenes of horror rise, 

Despair's loud yell, and Sorrow's frantic cries. 

Conscious I am, great Sire, the patriot's theme 
In my weak sex may unbecoming seem; 
For, in an age so viciously refin'd, 
By folly blinded, to caprice resign'd, 
Perhaps you deem the very name of arms, 
The thought of rapine, and of war's alarms, 
Of slaughter by contending armies made, 
Of burnish'd swords in deathful feats display'd, 
Of mourning widows, and of bleeding swains, 
Of burning towns, and desolated plains, — 
Perhaps you deem such themes were ne'er design'd 
To occupy the tender female mind; 
Ordain'd to study only how to please, 
And court the prospect of domestic ease: 
Yet oh! forgive, while patriot virtue fires, 
And soft humanity the strain inspires: 
Forgive, great Sire, if sorrowing I unfold 
Each dismal scene which my sad eyes behold; 
And, while the natives of my country bleed, 
The cause of sufF'ring worth I dare to plead. 

The radiant sun rolls on its swift career, 
But not remote beam'd forth that joyful year, 
When o'er proud MecklenburgJis belov'd domain 
Fair plenty smil'd on every fertile plain : 
The placid months serenely fled away, 
The fields were fruitful, and the groves were gay. 
But now, alas ! my streaming sorrows flow, 
Now, my dear country is one scene of woe ; 
Depopulation makes a frightful void, 
The peasant flies, or lingering is destroy'd : 
Where'er, in anguish, roll my aching eyes, 
All the dire horrors of the war arise ; 
The devastations of the martial train, 
With streaming gore empurple ev'ry plain : 
With native blood the swollen rivers glide, 
And to the ocean roll a crimson tide; 
While into camps the fertile fields are made, 
And thickest woods can scarce from danger shade; 
Woods where afflicted families retire, 
To shun the slaught'ring sword or raging fire. 
In vain they seek their weary eyes to close; 
Or if exhausted strength induce repose, 
Oppressive terrors agitate the soul, 
And fancy hears the battle's thunder roll. 
A famish'd child lifts up its streaming eyes, 
" Food, food! I perish!" the pale infant cries; 
The fainting mother ready to expire, 
Replies with tears, and supplicates the sire : 
The sire, unable to afford relief, 
Stands a distracted monument of grief; 
With blended sighs they mourn their hapless doom, 
And envy their loved babe the shelt'ring tomb. 





Now wing'd by fear no husbandman remains, 
By culture to restore the ravaged plains ; 
No gentle shepherd tends his fleecy care, 
Both rush to war, the rage of battle dare; 
And soldiers grown, oh! dire reverse of fate, 
Destroy those fields their labours till'd so late ! 
With anguish'd hearts the women sit and wail, 
As fears for husbands, or for sons prevail : 
Perchance a warrior here and there is found, 
Debarr'd the field by many a rankling wound; 
Round him the curious children fondly swarm, 
Hang on his tongue, and at his tale grow warm; 
The hist'ry of each aching wound desire, 
Devour each word, and catch congenial fire ; 
And while the hero, in impressive strain, 
Recites the wonders of the bloody plain, 
The steed's loud neighing, and the clank of arms, 
The thund'ring drum that beats to war s alarms, 
The clanging trumpet and the cannon's roar, 
The dying groans, and fields of streaming gore, 
The little audience high erect their crests, 
While martial ardours warm their glowing breasts. 
To us our friends, as fatal as our foes, 
These also swell the torrent of our woes ; 
Advancing or retreating squadrons spread 
Unbounded ravage, where their footsteps tread. 
To you, great Sire, we make our fond appeal, 
Whose justice only can our suff 'rings heal ; 
To you e'en helpless females may complain, 
Nor shed their tears, nor plead their cause in vain; 
And trembling babes, midst many a heart- felt sigh, 
With confidence lift up th' imploring eye. 
To you whose kind humanity stoops down, 
From all the dazzling grandeur of a crown, 
To shield the peasant in his lowly shed, 
To raise misfortune from her painful bed, 
To guard the meanest who for justice press, 
And grant the humblest supplicant redress, 
To you a nation's pray'rs united rise; 
Act like the great vice-gerent of the skies; 
Relieve our sufF'rings, War's dire rage restrain, 
And o'er our grateful hearts for ever reign. 


Come, gentle Venus ! and assuage 
A warring world, a bleeding age ; 
For nature lives beneath thy ray, 
The wintry tempests haste away, 
A lucid calm invests the sea, 
Thy native deep is full of thee ; 
And flowering earth, where'er you fly, 
Is all o'er spring, all sun the sky. 
A genial spirit warms the breeze; 
Unseen, amid the blooming trees, 
The feather'd lovers tune their throat, 
The desart growls a soften'd note, 
Glad o'er the meads the cattle bound, 
And Love and Harmony go round. 
But chief into the human heart 
You strike the dear delicious dart; 
You teach us pleasing pangs to know, 
To languish in luxurious woe, 
To feel the generous passions rise, 
Grow good by gazing, mild by sighs ; 
Each happy moment to improve, 
And fill the happy year with Love. 

Come, thou delight of heaven and earth ! 
To whom all creatures owe their birth; 
Oh come, sweet-smiling! tender, come! 
And yet prevent man's wretched doom. 
For long the furious God of War 
Has crush'd him with his iron car, 
Has rag'd along the smiling plains, 
Has bathed them with his cruel stains, 
Has fixed the youth in torpid sleep, 
And made the widow'd virgin weep. 
Let Mars now feel thy wonted charms ; 
Oh take him to thy twining arms ! 
And while thy bosom heaves to his, 
While deep he prints the humid kiss, 
Ah then! his stormy heart controul, 
And sigh thyself into his soul. 

Thy son too, Cupid, we implore, 
To leave the green Idalian shore. 
Be he, sweet God! our only foe; 
Long let him draw the twanging bow, 
Transfix us with his golden darts, 
Pour all his quiver on our hearts, 
With gentler anguish make us sigh, 
And teach us sweeter deaths to die. 








Curst be Ambition! to its lures we owe 
The greatest ills that mortals bear below; 
Curst by the maid torn from her lover's side, 
By the pale widow curst, too short a bride; 
By mothers curst, when floods of tears they shed, 
And scatter useless ROSES on the dead. 
Curst by the hind, when to the spoils he yields 
His year's whole sweat, and vainly ripen'd fields. 
E'en by the christian curst, whose mind can glow, 

And kindly feel for universal woe. 

But hark ! I hear more friendly shouts resound, 

And social clarions mix their sprightly sound ; 

Sweet-smiling PEACE descends from heav'n above, 

Creating joy, with harmony, and love. 

The British flags are furl'd, the troops disband, 

And scatter'd armies seek their native land; 

The raptur'd mother hails her son's return; 

The love-worn maiden ceases now to mourn, 

And in ecstatic trance the lovers burn ; 

The soft'ning arts now rear their drooping head; 

No longer grieves the country for its dead; 

The hind in comfort tills his native soil, 

And the glad earth repays his active toil; 

Now flocks ascend the breach without a wound, 

Or crop the bastion, turn'd to fruitful ground, 

While shepherds sleep, along the rampart laid, 

Or pipe beneath the formidable shade. — 

The alter'd scene now sooths my soul to rest, 

And wears each dreadful image from the breast. 

* Alluding to the Peace made by the illustrious Addington, which, it is hoped, will prove permanent, for the happiness 
of present and future generations. 


*' -■*<*■ 

/rU>€>>t fi <■> 

C <■? /aaxi/t *>adfi 


Ssjsss 'uZttr med both for i,s superior ^ md rich •** <*■-•* — 

the rivafofThe W and a 2 h T "^ " W ° U ' d "^ "^ deSCrib<id * Mturaliste - 
- attraets no £ ^^ & ,^S J^ ^ ff* 
,n .«s wild state, is of one uniform r ed. Art aeeonrplishes a,. nJnl^Tn >' 

deserves the appellation given it by botanists, D J™„.. the ££ J^L'l" s T" 
affected to desnise thp Fl™;^'* j , w ' # Jove.f Some have 

* In fair Italians bosom bom, 

Dianthus spreads his fringed ray; 
And glowing 'mid the purpled morn, 
Adds fragrance to the new-born day. 

Oft by some mould'ring time-worn tower 
Or classic stream he loves to rove, 

Where dancing nymphs and satyrs blithe 
Once listen'd to the notes of love. 

Sweet flower, beneath thy natal sky 
No fav'ring smiles * thy scents invite; 

To Britain's worthier region fly, 
And "paint her meadows with delight." 


■ The modern Italians, from whatever cause, are said to hold all perfumes, even those of Pl„™« • 

t From Atof, of Jove, a \foq 9 the flower. 

^^^^^^^^;\^^^ Mn*. "Sueh, by an over-great study and assigns 
who are versed in this studv. The JndXc o til ' ■ "° ""Y ^ clear - S 'S hted in the ™'°> co-Id ever discern, but those 
Ranunculuses, Pinks, CarnatLs, ^^iT^ZTT^ml T T T, T 1! 1 '** ***'* A ~ eS > 
as excite wonder and astonishment, and are real] Iv SoT' T^se ml ,7, "T^ ^ ^ gWen SUCh P° m P° US names 

are only known to the adepts ; nor can sul kuowkd^ t Twk , * SC,e " Ce ^"^ t0 themselv <*' »«» mysteries of which 

in* their societies." knowledge be worth the attent.on of the botanist; wherefore let no sound botanist ever enter 

^.tstrsss rtl^::^ • Not h : a : one is to t esteemed a ■*** » ™™ ^ -*> - »«*« 

of Nature, high,y agreeable to ^SLtS^!^^^ ^ ^ "* ''" "* *"* ** ""^ 

busLssXu ol SSSSTSSitSS 2KSS2KJ2 as th T are b r t0 th r enjoyment of competent — «w - * 

serious pursuit. Whatever i its essence and whatever h dec, ' "" ^ PleaSUrC * theref ° re ' beCOmeS t0 the ""emploved a 

liberty of election. It becomes ^^^^^^7"^ "^ ^' nSt "' ^"^ "'"' be S ° Ught * a " " h ° P°*« the 
without enervatmg the mind, a^^Sr "* P — - ** *" to exhibit objects that please, 


are hurried on in the career of life with too great rapidity to be able to rive a! L fon°.TThi w I ""^^ >*' that the S reater P art 
tationin the dirtiest street of the metropolis .^here Lney can^rX^ l£ ^o^^ H^ ^ 
« Yet the patron of refined pleasure, the elegant Epicurus, fixed the seat of his enjoyment in a garden. HeTouTt a "mnauil soor 

even the leaves of the tree undergo a pleasing vicissitude. The fresh verdure they exhibit in the spring, the various shades hlv assume m 
summer, the yellow and russet tinge of autumn, and the nakedness of winter, afford a constant pleasure to a fine imaginatLn From 
the snowdrop to the moss-rose, the flower-garden displays an infinite variety of shape and colour. The taste of the florist hasTe^idicuTed 




of the Stamina, and often of the Pistilla. Shakspeare notices this strange effect produced 

by art. 

Per. Sir, the year is growing ancient, 

Not yet on summer's death, nor on the birth 
Of trembling winter; the fairest flowers o tK season 
Are our Carnations, and streak' d Gillyflowers, 
Which some call Nature's Bastards :— of that kind 
Our rustic garden's barren, and I care not 
To get slips of them. 

as trifling, yet surely without reason. Did Nature bring forth the Tulip and the Hyacinth, the Rose and the Carnation, to be neglected by the 
haughty pretender to superior reason? To omit a single social duty for the cultivation of a Polyanthus were ridiculous as well as criminal; 
but to pass by the beauties lavished before us, without observing them, is no less ingratitude than stupidity. A bad heart finds little amuse- 
ment but in a communication with the active world, where scope is given for the indulgence of malignant passions; but an amiable dispo- 
sition is commonly known by a taste for the beauties of the vegetable creation. ,, Knox. 

Herbs and flowers may be regarded by some persons as objects of inferior consideration in philosophy; but every thing must be great 
which hath God for its author. To him all the parts of Nature are equally related. The flowers of the earth can raise our thoughts up to 
the Creator of the world as effectually as the stars of heaven; and till we make this use of both, we cannot be said to think properly of 
either. The contemplation of Nature should always be seasoned with a mixture of devotion, the highest faculty of the human mind, by 
which alone contemplation is improved, and dignified, and directed to its proper object.— With this devotion, the study of flowers seems 
to restore man in his fallen state to a participation of that felicity which he enjoyed while innocent in Paradise."— Nothing indeed proves 
more satisfactorily a benevolent Deity than the variety he hath established in flowers, even amongst the same species. What a blaze of 
light bursts in upon the inquiring mind respecting the intentions of this Deity! A full proof of the existence, wisdom, and never-ceasing 
agency of a presiding Power— kind and good-an Almighty Power ! -Our inimitable Harvey bursts out into these rapturous expressions 

at the sight of a flower garden : 

" What colours, what charming colours, are here! these, so nobly bold; and those, so delicately languid. What a glow is enkindled in 
some! what a gloss shines upon others! In one, methinks, I see the ruby with her bleeding radiance; in another the sapphire, with her sky- 
tinctured blue; in all, such an exquisite richness of dyes, as no other set of paintings in the universe can boast.— With what a masterly skill 
is every one of the varying tints disposed! Here, they seem to be thrown on with an easy dash of security and freedom; there, they are 
adjusted by the nicest touches of art and accuracy. Those which form the ground are always so judiciously chosen as to heighten the lustre 
of the superadded figures, while the verdure of the impalement, or the shadings of the foliage, impart new liveliness to the whole. Indeed, 
whether they are blended or arranged, softened or contrasted, they are manifestly under the conduct of a taste that never mistakes, a felicity 
that never falls short of the very perfection of elegance.— Fine, inimitably fine, is the texture of the web on which these shining treasures 
are displayed. What are the labours of the Persian looms, of the boasted commodities of Brussels, compared with these curious manufac- 
tures of Nature? Compared with these, the most admired chintzes lose their reputation; even superfine cambrics appear coarse as canvas in 

their presence. . 

« What an inchanting situation is this! One can scarce be melancholy within the atmosphere of flowers. Such lively hues, and delicious 
odours, not only address themselves agreeably to the senses, but touch, with a surprising delicacy, the sweetest movements of the mind. 

" How often have I felt them dissipate the gloom of thought, and transfuse a sudden gaiety through the dejected spirit! I cannot wonder 
that kings descend from their thrones, to walk amidst blooming ivory and gold; or retire from the most sumptuous feast, to be recreated 
with the more refined sweets of the garden. I cannot wonder that queens forego, for a while, the compliments of a nation, to receive the 
tribute of the parterre; or withdraw from all the glitter of a court, to be attended with the more splendid equipage of a bed of flowers. 

" What a surprising variety is observable among the flowery tribes! how has the bountiful hand of Providence diversified these nicest 
pieces of his workmanship! added the charms of an endless novelty to all their other perfections !— A constant uniformity would soon render 
the entertainment tiresome, or insipid; therefore every species is formed on a separate plan, and exhibits something entirely new. The 
fashion spreads not from family to family; but every one has a mode of its own, which is truly original. The most cursory glance perceives 
an apparent difference, as well as a peculiar delicacy, in the airs and habits, the attitude and lineaments of every distinct class. 

" Some rear their heads with a majestic mien, and overlook, like sovereigns or nobles, the whole parterre. Others seem more moderate 
in their aims, and advance only to the middle stations; a genius turned for heraldry might term them the gentry of the border. While 
others, free from all aspiring views, creep unambitiously on the ground, and look like the commonalty of the kind.— Some are intersected 
with elegant stripes, or studded with radiant spots. Some affect to be genteelly powdered, or neatly fringed; while others are plain in their 
aspect, unaffected in their dress, and content to please with a naked simplicity. Some assume the monarch's purple, some look most 
becoming in the virgin's white; but black, doleful black, has no admittance into the wardrobe of Nature. The weeds of mourning would 
be a manifest indecorum, when Summer holds an universal festival. She would now inspire none but delightful ideas; and therefore always 
makes her appearance in some amiable suit. Here stands a warrior, clad with crimson; there sits a magistrate, robed in scarlet; and yonder 
struts a pretty fellow, that seems to have dipped his plumes in the rainbow, and glitters in all the gay colours of that resplendent arch. 
Some rise into a curious cup, or fall into a set of beautiful bells; some spread themselves in a swelling tuft, or crowd into a delicious cluster. 
In some, the predominant stain softens, by the gentlest diminutions; till it has even stole away from itself. The eye is amused at the agree- 
able delusion, and we wonder to find ourselves insensibly decoyed into a quite different lustre. In others, you would think the fine tinges 
were emulous of pre-eminence. Disdaining to mingle, they confront one another, with the resolution of rivals, determined to dispute the 
prize of beauty; while each is improved, by the opposition, into the highest vivacity of complexion. 

" How manifold are thy works, O Lord ! " multiplied even to a prodigy: yet ". in wisdom," consummate wisdom, " hast thou made them 
all." How I admire the vastness of the contrivance, and the exactness of the execution! Man, feeble man, with difficulty accomplishes a 
single work. Hardly, and after many efforts, does he arrive at a tolerable imitation of some one production of Nature. But the Almighty 
Artist spoke millions of substances into instantaneous being; the whole collection wonderfully various, and each individual completely 

perfeCt -" Pol. 

Pot. Wherefore, gentle maiden, 

Do you neglect them? 
Per. For I have heard it said, 

There is an art, which in their piedness shares 

With great creating Nature. 
Pol. Say, there be: 

Yet Nature is perverted by no mean, 

For Nature makes that mean : so, over that Art, 

Which Nature makes; you see, sweet maid, we marry 

A gentle scyon to the wildest stock, 

And make conceive a bark of baser kind 

A bud of nobler race. This is an Art 

Which does mend Nature, change it rather, but 

The Art itself is Nature. || 

The Florist, in fact, raises this fine assemblage of plants from seed, and the botanist should 
excuse him his care, when he can draw from his labours the strongest arguments in favour of 
the sexes of plants. 

" This admirable flower is of all others the most delightful, as well for its agreeable scent as 
for its beautiful colours. The varieties of it are hardly to be numbered, every year producing 
new sorts raised from seed. Some of the choicest kinds are kept up by slips, layers, or cuttings, 
but no seeds are to be obtained from these, for, after a few years propagation in this way, they 
indeed flower, yet, even if a pistillum be formed, and any seeds are produced, these are always 
found to be abortive. $ Most of the other double flowers, such as have increased corollas, are 

vJif" \ 7 r? Uad t d 'u Sa ^ S J L, 1 NN * us > in his Sponsalia Plantanun, - from many considerations, that those numerous and most valuable of plants, which are daily seen adorning our gardens, or are used for culinary purposes, have been produced by the intermixture of for I cannot give my assent to the opinion of those who imagine all varieties to have been occasioned by a change of soil. If this 
were the case, the plants would return to their original form, provided they were removed to their original situation." The following is a 
curious anecdote, recorded by Ray, which confirms this doctrine. 

>u " B u X u 7? rd T er at Brentford, having cultivated a remarkably fine cabbage, sold a large quantity of the seeds to several gardeners about 
the suburbs of London. They committed these to the ground after the usual manner, but instead of the sort Baal had made them believe 
would spring up they proved to be chiefly the Brassica Longifolia instead of the Florida. His incensed customers in a body instantly 
commenced in Westm.nster-hall a prosecution against him. The unfortunate man being unable to prove his innocence before the judges, 
the court found him gu.lty of fraud, and he was condemned not only to restore the price given for the seeds, but was likewise obliged to 
pay each gardener for his loss of time, and for the ground that had been uselessly occupied. His character and circumstances were in con- 
sequence ru.ned; the robust health of the innocent man becoming gradually impaired, he paid an untimely debt to Nature. Had the judges 
been at all appr.zed of the sexual hypothesis, or had this honest man known, from careful observation, the use of the farina in rendering the 
p.stillum productive, Baal would not have been found guilty of a crime, but the accident would have been attributed to the true cause the 
fortuitous impregnation of the Brassica Florida by the farina of the Brassica Longifolia growing in its neighbourhood." 

Th.s fact ,s proved by Miller, the illustrious author of the Gardeners Dictionary, now rendered a work of the very first eminence by 
the learned and very valuable additions of Professor Mart™, in the last edition, which, to use the panegyric of Linmeus, " merits rather 
the appellation of a philosophic and botanical Dictionary for Botanists." 

Miller planted out three distinct rows of cabbages. In the first row he put a dozen of red cabbages; in the second a dozen of white; 
and in the third a dozen of savoys. As soon as these had done flowering he cut them all down, save one savoy, the seeds of which he 
carefully preserved. These seeds produced him red cabbages, white cabbages, savoys, some savoys with red ribs, and in some a mixture 
of all the three sorts in the same plant. This is a curious botanical fact, which the truly ingenious Mr. Knight is now turning to a valu- 
able account for the improvement of our apples and other fruits. 

§ This doctrine is thus expressed by Dr. Darwin : 

So grafted trees with shadowy summits rise, 

Spread their fair blossoms, and perfume the skies; 

Till canker taints the vegetable blood, 

Mines round the bark, and feeds upon the wood. 

So, years successive, from perennial roots 

The wire or bulb with lessen'd vigour shoots, 

Till curled leaves or barren flowers betray 

A waning lineage, verging to decay; 

Or till, amended by connubial powers, 

Rise seedling progenies from sexual flowers. 

B also 



also barren, for the organs for reproduction are lost in the multiplied of the petals. You 
must, therefore, seleet seed from a carnation raised itself from seed, not from layers, and from such 
also whose flowers shew a perfeet pistillum. And as the dust of one flower will impregnate and 
enliven that of another, and from such couplings the seeds are so changed as to produce plants 
changing from the mother plant (as I have proved in my chapter on the Generation of Plants) 
This consideration leads me to advise the curious florists to plant of every sort of his best 
carnations in beds, on a line in the middle, and on each side of them to set at least two rows of 
single ones of ekoice eolours, and among them also some plants of Pi^ and fl^ ^ 
are of the same genus." Vide Bradley, Professor of Botany, on Gardening, p. 122, published 

" ^his latter part of the experiment Faihchilo produced his Mule Pink, which the eye 
at once discovers to be betwixt a Sweet-william and a Pink. 

Caryo's sweet smile Dianthus proud admires, 
And gazing burns with unallow'd desires ; 
With sighs and sorrows her compassion moves, 
And wins the damsel to illict loves. 
So, in her wane of beauty, Ninon won 
With fatal smiles her gay unconscious son— 

Clasp'd in his arms, she own'd a mother's name,— 

" Desist, rash youth! restrain your impious flame; 

" First on that bed your infant-form was press'd, 

" Born by my throes, and nurtur'd at my breast."— 

Back as from death he sprung, with wild amaze 

Fierce on the fair he fix'd his ardent gaze; 

Dropp'd on one knee, his frantic arms outspread, 

And stole a guilty glance towards the bed; 

Then breath'd from quivering lips a whisper'd vow, 

And bent on heaven his pale repentant brow, 

" Thus, thus!" he cried, and plung'd the furious dart, 

And life and love gush'd mingled from his heart. 


The « sound" botanist will also find no plant that can better illustrate the calyx. 

He should indeed suffer each person to enjoy his own peculiar pleasure. There are some 
rigid men who even condemn this pursuit altogether, having not taste enough to relish the 
beauties of the creation. The poet thus reproves them : 

Why brand these pleasures with the name 
Of soft, unsocial toils, of indolence and shame? 
Search but the garden, or the wood; 

Let yon admir'd Carnation own, 
Not all was meant for raiment or for food, 
Not all for needful use alone : 
There, while the seeds of future blossoms dwell, 
Tis cohurd for the sight, perfwnd to please the smell, 



Why knows the Nightingale to sing? 

Why flows the Vines nectareous juice? 
Why shines with paint the Linnet's wing? 

For sustenance alone? for use? 
For preservation? Every sphere 
Shall bid fair Pleasure's rightful claim appear. 
And sure there seem of human kind 

Some born to shun the solemn strife ; 
Some for amusive tasks design'd, 
To sooth the certain ills of life; 
Grace its lone vales with many a budding rose, 

New founts of bliss disclose, 
Call forth refreshing shades, and decorate repose. 


Florists distinguish Carnations into four divisions : 

1. Flakes, of two colours only, and their stripes large, going quite through the petals. 

2. Painted Ladies, having the petals of a red, or purple, on the upper part only, and the 

under side of a clear white. 

3. Bizarres, flowers striped or variegated with three or four different shades of colour. 

4. Piquettes, a white or yellow ground, edges toothed and spotted, or, to use the florist's ex- 

pression, pounced, with scarlet, red, or purple. 
In our Plate of these Carnations * there are two purple Flakes; the upper is Palmer's 
Duchess of Dorset, and the lowest one Palmer's Defiance: — there are two scarlet 
Bizarres; that on the right is Caustin's British Monarch, and the center one, a paler red, 
is Midwinter's Duchess of Wurtemberg: — likewise there are two Piquet tes; the red 
Piquette is Davey's Defiance, and the purple one the Princess of Wales. 

* These Carnations were all of them copied, of the exact size of Nature, from out of the choice collection of Mr. Davet, of the 
King's Road, Chelsea, as were the Tulips from that of Mr. Mason, certainly the first florists in the world, and gentlemen extremely 
desirous of giving every information and encouragement to the Botanist. 





. V. / /.' / mi/./- ' 

fatherland sculpt 

Wished />v DTTkornten, May i,l##j. 



L.nn*„s makes the Auricula a species of Primula (P, IM0l4 Aue.cul.O To f . 

stitutes it nto a seDarate a^nuc tj • • "imulaauricula). rournefort con- 

near a chain of t e'l o^Zun, " S \T\ "' "* ^ "^ " ° Ur »*»* " is -ated 
.he Bearer- tie h ,e tZ m 7, TZ , " Ca " ed * °' d P " rkinSOn ""= *~«* *«*. also 
to resemble e ea ft, atTnimaT ^T"' ^ ™ **'■ "* ^ * ** **»£«* 
*« and Nature, ^blf JffiS C ".^ ■ "T ^ * "* U <^ 
rated leaf, often raised aloft lite a W, a 'he bnc of Co " * Str ° ng ~ 

surrounding the neck of the hZ j J ■ ^ ^ * r ° Und white ™ cl * 

h a, of t he\ordeTl: elites JESTST.!^ T • " " "" "*" 
purple or ^ t „e most eommon kind, LlSZZ LTi^tlSS 
*!fi; the purple one in our Pieture is feftM ife^fita, the yellow the ^„ J 

.ore comp.etelv circular, and this I so', STLtffiS ST x' it^ 2 
these flowers are mueh smaller, and have five stamina. The Anrieu.a was cultivated! It 

f;r:::r^;r: 7 L .::;r underCtesv - p — • — • £X£ 

Queen of the snowy Alps, in glittering pride 

She rears her palace on the mountain's side; 

There, as bright sun-beams light her spangled throne 

Attendant sylphs the aerial Empress own, 

Expand their purple plumes, and raised in air, 

Wave their green banners to protect the fair. 

Imperial Beauty with resistless sway 
Tames the rude bears, and bids their tribes obey 
Roar round each crystall'd cliff and moss-girt plain, 
And guard in shaggy troops her bright domain. 
Delighted Boreas views her from afar, 
And drives in stormy state his ebon car; 
Low at her feet the boist'rous Monarch bows, 
And breathes his passion 'mid descending snows, 
While timid Zephyr flies through fields of air, 
Scarce daring to approach the hill-encircled fair. 


* For a plant to he fine, or a flower for Florists, the scape, or lee must he <trmn„ „„ • k,, orfingers, must not he less than seven, ^ wA^Si^SVSS^ ZZSH*"* ****«» ^ 
regular, forming together a kind of ball, and, though closeanl co^ed, -Tflower shouM as ^T' Sh ° U ' d * ** a " d 

other. With respect to the flowers themselves, the tube, or cup, should ^onlToure^ the s, " ^f^ * diStlnCt fr ° m each 
ous enough to fill properly the cup and conniving; the inner margin, or eye, a clear distinct white J """w V^T!'. Str ° ng ' and numer " 
rich and bold, the edge neaxest the eye determinate, the outer paft r-nni'into^tSS^S^tt. £ t' ^ ^ C ° W ' 
what emargmate, which part is called the toeing. These should be all proportionately Z^m^llXf.' ^ *? """^ 




•. '■. 


J,*„e/,.„. _?/!<//&/,*/.- #<"/ '*.w>*..6/£A r r ?A<>*»/™ 


As each individual Tulip shews a marked variety, so when grouped together, you have a striking 
display of the wonderful power of the beneficent Creator, who has placed these beautiful objects 
before us, for our recreation, and admiration ! Enveloped between two transparent skins is found 
the colouring ingredients, so admirably disposed in a pulpy body, constituting the interior structure 
of each petal ! How much does the imitative power of painting fall short in trying to represent these 
ravishing beauties of the vegetable world ! 

For who indeed can paint 

Like Nature? Can Imagination boast, 

Amid his gay creation, hues like these ? 

And can he mix them with that matchless skill, 

And lay them on so delicately fine, 

And make these varied marks so just and true, 

That each shall tell the name denoting 

Its peculiar birth? 

The most cursory glance may indeed shew us that diversity which Tulips exhibit: but it will 
require our nearer approaches to discover the distinctions in the habits, attitude, and lineaments, of 
the several species which have given occasion to the appellations invented by florists. 

Most prominent in our group, you see a tulip, named after that unfortunate French monarch, 
Louis XVI, then in the meridian of his glory; and it rises above the rest with princely 
majesty, the edges of whose petals are stained with black, which is the true emblem of sorrow. 
It finely displays the six Stamina placed around the Pistillum in the centre and its three interior, 
and three exterior petals.*— The next Tulip in dignity has its six petals of a firmer structure, and is 
bordered with dark purple, so that the most rigid critic might excuse the fancy of the florist, who has 
named this flower after the man§ f Justum et tenacem propositi.'— Beneath these is La Majes- 
tieuse, whose edges are clear, but it possesses an extensive blue purple stripe in the centre of each 
petal.— The Carnation Tulip is called by Botanists La Triomphe Royale, which for beauty 
of its pencilled stripes certainly triumphs over all the rest.— Beneath this is the Gloria Mundi, 
whose yellow ground is an emblem of sublunary perfection. Its decisive dark purple lines at the edges, 
or in the centre of the petals at their top, together with its stately position, sufficiently characterize this 
individual. — The two remaining Tulips have been newly raised by Davey and Mason, and were 
named by me, after two very distinguished patrons of this work, Her Grace the Duchess of 
Devonshire, \ no less eminent for her fine sense and expressive beauty, — than Earl Spencer, || 
for his memorable conduct of our navy, which has eclipsed, under his administration, even the glory of 
our ancestors, which was previously imagined to exceed almost the bounds of human credibility. 

* Hence it comes under the Class Hexandria, Order Monogynia ; six males and one female. 


% The Tulip on the top is the DUCHESS of DEVONSHIRE, and has fine dashes of a red purple on a pale straw ground. 

|| This Tulip, the EARL SPENCER, is characterised by its numerous fine pencilled purple stripes throughout the petals. 

P. S. Tulips with a white ground florists designate by the title of Bybloemen, and with a yellow ground by the name of Bizarre. So great once was 
the rage in Holland for Tulips, that the Burgomasters found it necessary to enact a law, that no one should give more than forty pounds for a 
Tulip ! Even in England, at this time, the LOUIS sells for forty Guineas, and the WASHINGTON for ten ! 



As the juices of the Turnip are wholly exhausted in the formation of the stent leaves and 
flowers of the plant, so annually does the lunieated M of theTuL.P expend inSHn T 

When o'er the cultur'd lawns and dreary wastes 

Retiring Autumn flings her howling blasts, 

Bends in tumultuous waves the struggling woods, 

And show'rs their leafy honours on the floods, 

In with'ring heaps collects the flowery spoil, 

And each chill insect sinks beneath the soil: 

Quick hears fairTuLiPA the loud alarms, 

And folds her infant closer in her arms; 

Soft plays affection round her bosom's throne, 

And guards its life, forgetful of her own.— 

So wings the wounded deer her headlong flight, 

Pierc'd by some ambush'd archer of the night, ' 

Shoots to the woodlands with her bounding fawn, 

And drops of blood bedew the conscious lawn; 
There, hid in shades, she shuns the cheerful day, 
Hangs o'er her young, and weeps her life away.— 
So stood Eliza on the wood-crown'd height, 
O'er Minden's plain, spectatress of the fight; 
Sought with bold eye, amid the bloody strife, 
Her dearer self, the partner of her life; 
From hill to hill the rushing host pursii'd, 
And view'd his banner, or believ'd she view'd. 
Pleas'd with the distant roar with quicker tread, 
Fast by her hand one lisping boy she led; 
And one fair girl, amid the loud alarm, 
Slept on her kerchief, cradled by her arm; 
While round her brows bright beams of honour dart, 
And love's warm eddies circle round her heart. 
Near and more near th' intrepid beauty press'd, 
Saw through the driving smoke his dancing crest; 
Heard th' exulting shout, "they run! they run!"' 
" Great God!" she cried, " he's safe! the battle's won!" 
A ball now hisses through the airy tides, 
(Some fury wing'd it, and some daemon 'guides,) 
Parts the fine locks her graceful head that deck, 
Wounds her fair ear, and sinks into her neck: 
The red stream, issuing from her azure veins, 
Dyes her white veil, her ivory bosom stains. 
" Ah me!" she cried, and, sinking on the ground, 
Kiss'd her dear babes, regardless of the wound: 
" O cease not yet to beat, thou vital urn; 
" Wait, gushing life, oh! wait my Love's return: 
" Oh! spare, ye war-hounds, spare their tender age; 
" On me, on me," she cried, " exhaust your rage." 
Hoarse barks the wolf, the vulture screams from far, 
The angel Pity shuns the walks of war. 
Then with weak arms her weeping babes caress'd, 
And, sighing, hid them in her blood-stain 'd vest. ' 



Jtanagle SavTJtA.pv 

qJ&C *Am&%/ _Qj^/f/. 


.London, J\ibhftial by J).' Thornton,, Jan?Jj£lZ. 



A his is one of the many lovely productions imported from the Cape of Good Hope, introduced 
into our gardens by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. the illustrious and most indefatigable pro- 
moter of the science of Natural History. Its leaves are coriaceous and spoon-shaped, often undu- 
lated at the base, inwardly of a deep green, and outwardly beautifully glaucous. The flowers are 
of a bright orange, tripetalled, enclosed at first by two long membranous calyx leaves, which drop 
as the flower rises from the common spatha, and these appear in succession, each retiring back- 
ward, to give place to other flowers. These three petals of the corolla encompass the beautiful 
nectarium, which is diphyllous, that is, composed of two leaves, one shaped like an anchor ex- 
teriourly, and hollowed interiourly, inclosing in a groove the five stamina, remarkable for long 
anthers, through which duplicature also passes the style, whose triangular and pointed stigma, 
finally reaching beyond the bifid end of this part of the nectary, makes the anchor resemblance 
perfect. The other petal of the nectary is smaller, shaped like a cowl, and hooked. Nature 
here seems to aim at deception, the beaked spatha, upon its long and round stalk, or scape, 
gives the similitude of the head of some species of crane, and the flowers above feign its top- 
knot; and even the expert botanist at first sight might imagine that the purple nectary on one 
side was a stamen, with its barbed anther, and on the other the stigma, as in the orchis tribe : but 
upon dissection all this confusion vanishes, and it easily arranges under Class V. Pentandria, 
Order I. Monogynia, of Linnaeus, each flower possessing five stamina, and one pistillum. We 
have been so fortunate as to be favoured with the following Verses on this Plant by the present 
Poet Laureate. 

On Afric's southern steep, where Gama's sail 

To the tempestuous clime was first unfiirl'd, 
Courting with ample sweep the dangerous gale, 

And op'd to Europe's sons the ^Eastern World, 

Heroes, beyond the Demi-Gods of Greece, 

By Jason led, and urg'd by Orpheus' lyre, 
Seeking, through wilder seas a richer fleece, 

While warlike Camoens* wak'd the epic wire. 

Oft as the Genius of the stormy main 

From the high promontory view'd the wave, 
He saw with daring prow Britannia's train, 

The angry winds and mountain surges brave, 

George's parental sway and Albion's laws 

Spreading where Ammon's empire never spread, 
To Thames' blest stream her stores while Commerce draws 

From Ganges' Bramin groves and Indus' bed : 

Sudden, a buoyant Ve^el meets his eyes, 

Not launch'd by thirst of wealth, or hope of fame, 
Science alone directs the bold emprise, 

Her eye their cynosure, her smile their aim. 

Her favourite Votary from the lap of ease, 

From Pleasure's syren voice, and Fortune's store, 
Steers by unpeopled coasts, through pathless seas, 

The expanded Scenes of Nature to explore. 

* A famous Portuguese Poet, Author of the Lousiad. 

Amid her shapes minute while others pry, 

Scanning the myriads on the herbs' green top, 

Or mark intent, with microscopic eye, 

The monsters writhing in the liquid drop; 

Advent'rous Banks! * her bolder march pursues, 
Through the rude desert, and the billowy storm, 

And 'mid the elemental conflict views 
The mighty wonders of her awful form. 

Now 'mid the rigour of antarctic frost, 

Where the chill stream of life scarce keeps its way; 
Now where the day-star on the sultry coast 

At noon-tide sheds th' insufferable ray ; 

Uncheck'd by danger, unsubdu'd by toil, 

He climbs where mountains rise on mountains roll'd, 

Nor seeks the ores that glow beneath the soil, 
But " views the mine without a wish for gold." 

His pride, on every land, in every clime, 

^ From the low shrub that clothes the arid plain, 
To where the cedar waves her boughs sublime, 
Careful to trace the vegetable reign. 

Crown of his labours! this imperial flower, 
Wafted from burning Afric's rugged scene, 

'Neath Britain's better skies, in happier hour, 
Enjoys the patronage of Britain's Queen! 

Grac'd by her Name,\ its shining petals boast 
Above the rest to charm her favouring eyes, 

Though Flora brings from every clime her host 
Of various odours and of varied dyes.^; 

While Royal Nymphs,§ fair as the Oreade race 
Who trod Eurota's brink, or Cynthus' brow, 

Snatch from the wreck of time each fleeting grace, 
And bid its leaves with bloom perennial glow ! 

James Henry Pye. 

a nH*J hC Righ fl H ° n ) 7" e J ,OSE " B " K went with Ca P*in Cook round the world, in order to explore the seenes of natnre, 
and has since flounshed the Maecenas of Botany and Natural History, which may be compared to a very tender plant, requiring the 
fostering aid of rich individua s, who employ their suh«t!in<v> ««* i„ ™ m „ a ■ .... F"»"» icqumng me 

™* ,„ „♦ if « r u r Z ■> lneir SUDstanc e» not in pomp and vain amusements, but in the better pursuit of knowledge 

and an eternal fame « I have often," says the elegant St. Pierre, « been astonished at our indifference respecting the applau e of 
those who have introduced useful plants into their country, the sight or fruit of which are to this day so delightful, The names of these 
public benefactors are chiefly unknot, whilst their benefits pass from generation to generation: whereas those of the deZyerfof the 
human race are handed down to us in every page, as if we took more account of our enemies than of our friends. The andents did not 

Sztl? in b. way - irt observes that ceres and bacchus - wh ° ™* »<**> « m * ^ «* <* <** ?™ "£ t*£ 

sal and lasting blessings, they procured to mankind: whereas, Theseus, and other Heroes, rose only to the rank of 
denu-god, their good achievements being but of a temporary and partial nature. Pliny, the great Roman natural st fnforms us with 
no small degree of exultation, that of the eight species of cherries known in Italy in his time, one was styled pS» after Z name of 

fwenty years over all Enrol Fnl . Che ry Trees into Italy, from whence they were propagated in less than an hundred and 


■V i J 

w **■ 

Zondfffi.AdHsht ■■' mton M.n U&7 




«on Court Pa,„ce. The 2ES£ 5fc£^ " ^E* ""* "" "*« •*»" * «". at Hamp- 
•ember, 1790. at Smith's nursed a d'sZ T7T" "I **" ""^ h "* '"°" t " "4 
old, at which time, it displavedl 1^ 2 tru , 7 *f* * ~ SU »P° Sed <° >* ** TO yea" 
with astonishing rapidity, U ft IS^Jt SJ ^ ?» — - «" '«»«. increasing 
and there projected from its summit at „r„! V . f ' rescmblm S *e mast of a ship, 

extremities were found fron 80 to 00 T "*' ' 3 "* < " 0Kfa *' rt «* » f *£ 

lengths, ,ha, each flower might ha e i s due noTr °" *??£*** " n ° Wer - Sb " ks ' ° f <«*«* 
•he idea of a vast chandelier Had hes fl * * ' "° d ' ,eat ' •*■* in each ■*■«*«« 

Thistie, the resemblance in led Z^jTZTT'. f '""^ ° f fc °«" * or T ^ 
>_* yet they exhibit rernar^ «fl Z£££ K^ftiT ^t ^ * 

where , hey are natives, these now^ m^, t ^fc "Z ^ 7,°° ""% "n"- 1 " 8 » ™ *-^ 
the beaux and belies of the vegetable w„ld Or ha st " ,' '' ** *" •* W b < v I - inn »" s 
vacte, of funereal pomp, and £££ %2 '.£& ™ "*« *"<• to *» then, ,he cha- 
or A», ERICAN Aloe, when arrived at maturitv 1 1 ^""^ ° f C °'° Uring; for ,1,e Ac «»' 

flowers themselves, derive « K ir nour hTen L ,, ' ." T"' S " PP ° r,i " 8 "" B °" m ' "* * 

•hose decay, and final.y, the ^JZ^S^ , T "T" benCa "'- " Dd as *~ ■*-» 

■Haments, even the pedicle, SSffiS ^ ^T""' "* ^ * - 

how far my humble endeavours may merit the P*t>! ^clmendatil ' *" "* "* **"> 

Nurs'd by a length of rolling years 

Her stately form Agave rears, 

Protracting still with wise delay, 

The glory follow'd by decay, 

Till, urg'd by time's resistless date, 
Nobly She braves her destined fate, 
And, conscious of the approaching doom, 
Bursts forth impatient into bloom; 
While, rich from all their curving stems, 
Profusely shoot the golden gems; 
Then fading 'midst admiring eyes, 
The vegetable Martyr dies.... " 
But, flow'ring thus at THY command, 
Unchang'd her finish'd form shall stand; 
And glorying in perennial bloom, 
Shall tmile through age<f yet to come. 

Dr. Shaw. 

Ae place of hemp, flax, and co, t „, The thorns, with which it fs led ^ o/awU o' ' ,° ?"* M •—**■«* can sup,,," 

nghtlv tapped, iron, three to four hundred galions of sap may be e.trae^ whieh mav hi L T, ° T "^ ° r pi " S > ° r «»» «E* 

S& £ f£T tI,e r rp T cf soap - ^ ^ «™ * »* « ^TitSSTtr 7 ,nc ; or h i s r ]y boi,in& reduced <°" 

Mk W the flowers, when collected, is a most amicus reme d 7 in Asth.a, an'd ^SSSmViSk ^ "^ ^^^ ■ 







This lovely Tree rises by the banks of rivers to the height of near twenty feet. Its leaves are 
alternate, strongly veined in the midrib exteriorly, but channelled in the inside. Like the 
Indian Canna they constitute a part of the stalk. In its first stage the buds are enveloped within 
a leafy sheath, in the centre, supporting at its top a small leaf. The inside is of a beautiful 
crimson. The flower then shoots out a real spatha consisting of two leaves of a light green, 
elegantly running into crimson. These drop, when the buds all appear regularly disposed like 
the tiles of a house, of a beautiful white, tipt with crimson. They then appear glossy, and as if 
formed of the most perfect wax. From an absolute depending position, the flower-stalk gra- 
dually becomes nodding, the protecting leaf in the centre of the plant, withers, and from the 
bottom upwards the flowers take a contrary direction, the buds each turning back as they open, 
displaying a lovely assemblage of the most captivating flowers. To understand this flower well 
we must have recourse to the dissection. The flowers are not single but in pairs. The first 
envelope drops, when the advancing flower with a bud by its side appears. The second envelope 
is permanent, and wrinkled at the edges, half the length of the calyx, of a single piece with 
a division through its whole length, throughout of a bright crimson. This is seen along with the 
Pistillum, and is seated above the germen. The Corolla consists of a single fleshy petal divided 
into three segments, whereof the upper segment, resembles a hood, is twice the size of the two 
under, strongly emarginate, and deeply marked with crimson, whereas the two under ones are only 
half the size, less decidedly emarginate, with only a blush of red near their summits, divided by 
a line of white in the centre. Under the upper segment and attached to its base is the filament y 
ending in a twin or double anther. Here we remark a singular contrivance of Nature not to fail 
of her purpose, the filament is not only grooved, but there is an hollow in the centre of the 
anther, through which the pistillum passes, and growing longer than the stamen, the flower there- 
fore depends. The germen beneath is slightly covered with down, and becomes an Oblong berry, 
filled with seeds, which is preserved by the natives of Surinam, and is accounted a great deli- 
cacy. The Pistillum is also further fixed within the tube of the Nectary, resembling in form 
somewhat, that of the Limodoron, or the petal of our Digitalis, but this is of a beautiful 
yellow, exquisitely streaked with red, and deeply tinged at its base, and this is continually distilling 
honey into the water, which creates a plaintive sound. It comes under the first Class, and first 
Order of Linnaeus. We were favoured on this plant with the following exquisite lines, by a 
lady, whose fine poetry, I am happy to announce, will again appear in the course of this work. 

Bright Renealmia! why in pensive grace 
Bend o'er th' enamour'd stream thy lovely face? 
Still to the wave thus bow thy glowing head, 

And give thy image to its liquid bed 

Less beauteous forms might view with conscious pride 
Their hues reflected in the glassy tide; 
Whilst thou, fair plant ! but thinlc'st thy fading near, 
Droop'st in thy bloom, and shedd'st a spicy tear. 

Cordelia Sheeles. 




"^ •. 

//,-/, rr /y rf,/,,,/,//, ,///<><>//■/"//<//</■ J ///,/ . 

// //t///.,//r,/ . //,r ,/ /,) txr'i t. /, 


O R, 



This plant is called by Linnaeus large-flowering Cactus, on account of the comparative largeness 
of its flower, which, in its native country, Jamaica, is often more than a foot in diameter. It has 
the appellation also of Night-blowing Cereus from its opening its beautiful flowers after sun-set. 
Others have styled it the Thorch Thistle, from the armature about its pentangular, articulated, and 
climbing stem, which is leafless, succulent, and exhibits to the observer a figure equally 
grotesque as terrific, with flowers possessing actually the blazing appearance of a torch. I have 
sometimes seen in our hot-houses twenty or thirty of these flowers expanded in the same evening, 
emitting all the while a fine balsamic odour. The calyx is monophyllous, that is, consisting of one 
piece, which is deeply cleft into segments, called by botanists lacinice, which are of a bright orange, 
and gradually diminish in size, becoming real squama, or scales, before they reach the germen, or 
seed-vessel, which is villous, or covered with numerous hairs. The petals, or flower-leaves of the 
corolla, are twenty in number, of a snowy whiteness, and arranged in tiers, are less pointed and 
concave than the lacinice, having each extremity armed with a hook. These two expansions 
LiNNiEUS figuratively calls the nuptial bed. From the germen at the bottom of the cup, arises a 
long tube, named by botanists the style, which terminates in a many-cleft stigma. These 3 parts 
form what is termed the pistillum, or female; around whom, in clusters, are the stamina, or males, 
composed of curvilinear filaments, crowned by their anthem. These take their origin from the 
calyx; hence this plant comes under the Class Icosandria and Order Monogynia of Linneeus; 
and in the reformed System, Class Many Stamina, Order Filaments inserted into the 
Calyx. The Cereus is thus personified by Dr. Darwin in his Loves of the Plants. 

Refulgent CEREA! the dusky hour 
She seeks with pensive step the mountain -bower, 
Bright as the blush of rising morn, and warms 
The dull cold eye of midnight with her charms. 
There to the skies she lifts her pencil'd brows, 
Opes her fair lips, and breathes her virgin vows; 
Eyes the white zenith; counts the suns that roll 
Their distant fires, and blaze around the pole; 
Or marks where Jove directs his glittering car 
O'er Heaven's blue vault,... Herself a brighter star. 
...There as soft zephyrs sweep with pausing airs 
Thy showy neck, and part thy shadowy hairs, 
Sweet Maid of Night! to Cynthia's sober beams 
Glows thy warm cheek, thy polish'd bosom gleams. 
In crowds around thee gaze the admiring swains, 
And guard in silence the enchanted plains; 
Drop the still tear, or breathe the impassion'd sigh, 
And drink inebriate rapture from thine eye. 




h^ ■ 







llrllTwZ^r^ "^^ AmeriCa ' ^ ^ intr0dUCed int ° ° Ur h0t - h0USes "■ the 
year 1777, by Brown. This ornamental shrub, which rises from three to five feet 

has numerous leaves oblique, very smooth, laterally heart-shaped, waved, terminating aeute Ite 
floors afford a beautiful example of the Sex* of Plants, being male and/W, The w */e * J 
are d 1S enmmated by having only four petals, the upper and under are large, and the side peT 
small, all inversely cordate. In the centre of the flower are the numerous stamina. The female 
Jokers are readily distinguished by having five, equal, lanceolate, petals, and a tricuspidate pistillum 
in the centre, with the germen, or seed-vessel, three-winged, inferior. Nature, as if extremely 
solicitous for this enchanting work of her hand, has with tender care involved the embryo-flowers 
within a fine membranaceous//™, or bractea, whose office of protection being served drops 
leaving the central parts of the flowers (or organs for reproduction) protected by their petals' 
1 he male flowers are in clusters, and occupy the superior part of the plant, for the more favourable 
dispersion of the fructifying pollen; while the female flowers are found beneath on dichotomous or 
forked, peduncles, or stalks. The Begonia comes under the class Moncecia of Linnaeus order 
Polyandria, and in the reformed system, Class Many Stamina, Order Stamen-Flowers 
and Pistil-flowers, on the same Plant. 

Where mid Columbia's gaily- tinctur'd skies 

Her mountains blue in distant ranges rise, 

And o'er the deepening shades and crystal springs, 

Triumphant Cupid waves his purple wings, 

The fair Begonia in her verdant bower 

With conscious blushes owns his sovereign power: 

Conceals her secret wish by coy disdain; 

Yet eyes with look oblique some fav'rite swain : 

Around her soft retreat, with joy elate, 

Her numerous Lovers urge the gay debate, 

Besiege the easy Fair with honey 'd tales, 

And tell their passion to the laughing Gales, 

In frolic mirth their hopes and fears impart, 

And win by turns her dissipated heart *. . . . 

So Galatea from her shepherd swain 

Tripp'd archly wanton o'er the flowery plain, 

And laughing soft, with well-dissembled mien, 

Flew to the shades, yet wishing to be teen. 

Dr. Shaw. 

* Linnaeus characterizes the Begonia thus, Folia cordata, altero latere obliterato. Having Leaves heart-shaped, one Lol-e nearlv obliterated. 



Ah, happy insect, free from care, 
Thou sportest in the fluttering breeze; 

Wild as the fragrant mountain air, 
And playful as the waving trees. 

When morning glimmers in the east, 
Thou wander'st o'er the dewy ground, 

To sip the wild thyme's honey'd feast, 

Whose sweet breath scatters perfume round. 

At noon thou suck'st the thistly mead, 
Where, with companions blythe and gay, 

Upon the nectar'd flowers to feed, 
And sport the sultry hours away. 

And when the sun's last beam is fled, 
And ev'ning sheds her pearly tears, 

Thou sinkest to thy blossom'd bed, 
Slumb'ring again till morn appears. 

Ah! happy insect! once like thine 
My heedless moments pass'd away; 

No lengthen'd sigh of grief was mine: 
No tears then chill'd the glowing day. 

I wander'd carelessly along 

The wild wood paths and shady bowers ; 
Gave to the murmuring winds my song, 

And gather'd wreaths of simple flowers. 

Yes: then, gay Flutterer! like thee 
I danc'd where sportive Fancy led:— 

Such Joy no longer smiles for me, 
E'en Hope's delusive dreams are fled. 



S. E. 

T^Z-^^ZZ^^*. —* - d — the Country of which the BEOON,A is native - 

v* ■ 








^ m H» ** Norman, fat *- ^ £— -J by clo , ng , 5 

of the Ang,V« ga-g at, and admtnng ,ts flowe.s. It slee s a g P ^ 

them also the appearance of spontaneous mohon ?«*> ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

of vegetables the high attributes of sensat.on, and ^ ^ ^ , fc fc 

rate tree, it is not armed with spines » -V £ « _. ^^ ^ ^^ so as 
Mimosa Pudica. (the common Sensdtve-Plant), P ^ ^ .^ ^.^ 

t0 set the whole plant into general motion upon them^ PP^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 
honey, it is the indulgent parent of the hunrmmg . ^ ^^ 

P— u - this tribe, that ^2232 — only i cl i tre of male, Hence it 
or female, there are also several of Us flowe.s w P ^^ R fc ^ ^ 

arranges in the Class XXIII. Polygamy Order 1. 
sonified by the late Dr. Darwin. 

Fffl'd with nice sense the chaste M»^»» «>■*•> 

From each rade touch withdraws her .mud hands. 

Oft, a, light clouds o'erpass the summer glade, 

Alarm'd she trembles at the moving shade; 

And feels, alive through all her tender form, 

The whisper d murmurs of the gathering storm; 

Shuts her sweet eyelids to approaching mght, 

And hails with freshened charms the rismg hgh«. 

Many a suitor woos the blushing ma,d. 

Eaeh swears by him she ne'er can be betmyd. 

At last, she melts, and sighs, in verdant bow rs. 

And yields to Cupids all triumphant pow rs.- 

So hapless Dadmam, &" and **">& 

Won by OthelU, captivating tongue 

Hung o'er each strange and piteous .ale, MM* 

Then sunb enamourd on his sooty breast. ^^ 

* Desdemon 

a is represented by Shakspeare, as one so chaste, 

as to 

tremble even at the sight of her own shadow. 1 

■ — ■■»» — 


vtay Flutter er of the changeful plume, 
Born in Columbian wilds to stray, 

Where Nature boasts perpetual bloom, 
And smiles unconscious of decay, 

Thy favour'd Race on lucid wing 

From flower to flower, from grove to grove, 
Like living gems are seen to spring, 

And thro' the vivid landscape rove. 

Where bending o'er the fragrant, field, 
Mimosas t quiv'ring branches sweep, 

Deep in their downy nest conceal'd 
Secure thy speckled infants sleep. 

The sun thy friend, the flower thy bed, 
Thy drink the nectar of its cell, 

Luxuriant Nature smiling round, 

What Muse thy varying joys can tell? 

Had but Anacreon's fate allow'd 
Thy life and brighter charms to see, 

His fam'd Cicada had been scorn'd, 
And thou his better deity! 


* There are several species of the Humming Bird, but the smallest variety is of the size of an hazel-nut. It is inconceivable how much 
these add to the high finishing and beauty of a fine western landscape. As soon as the sun is risen, the Humming Birds, of different kinds, 
are seen fluttering about the flowers, without ever lighting upon them. Their wings are in such rapid motion, that it is impossible to discern 
their precise colours, except their glittering. They are never still, but continually in motion, visiting flower after flower, and extracting its 
honey by a forky tongue, which they throw out like the proboscis of the bee, and commit their thefts in the gentlest manner. The constant 
division of the air creates a pleasing murmuring noise, and gives them their appellation. They sleep perched upon flowers, and hang their 
little nests in air, at the extremity of a small twig, lined with cotton, laying two eggs of a dazzling white, here and there speckled with 
yellow, and feed their young with the same sweet food as nourishes themselves. 

f The Mimosas are the natural denizens of South America, although the grand\flora was first met with, I believe, in China. 

y jfr^yA 

<•'■''< ,_ 4///.//^,/ /, . /„ , //,,>,///,,,,, y,, /,y /,\i><>. 




i • • „,.« nnr w this though the most common, as thriving 
Arc the Passes claim the*tamng e ^^ ^ ^ aml , s „. OIKk , rs « re 

we H out of doors, the .east atirac ,v. ££*£"£ passion of our ^ whc „cc its P re- 
S oon proclaimed to Chnsfao M^^ ^ ^ <he _ ttet pieIced our Saviours 
seu.appeUa.iou. The 'eaves wees a ° » ™ „ J, „j* tnat scourgc d him ; .he .eu 
side; .he tendrils, the cords .ha. bou »Y* dPc t r deserted ; .he pillar h .he center™ the 
petals the *«* Judas havmg £*-£«g* J * « ^ . ,'„ ^ about thc ccntra , 
L. or ,«e; the stamina, ^f^'^X the ifc „ the flower, the emble* of, the *« »/ *« *£K&*fiJ ^ * «*>»« -*■ «*" ** 
F , ri to; and the blue, the type rf£~ On ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ (hc „ dis . 
„/ blood were seen upon the cross , ^^ ^ brought ^ ^ j,^ 

appeared, denoting «-«^^&. in th e year ,699. We shall now examine 
to Europe, ^ "*£££ A remarkable for the growth of its shoots, r,s,„g ,n 
this plant botamcally. It «» * J £» ^ fluted At distinct dtstancea proceed 

a few months above fifteen feet. The * ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ fiye 

two .** half-moou-shaped on <**^ȣ* . rf ^ of the 

pointed lobes, and the lesser lobe ,s often sub bed < ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ fey , 

leaf proceed first to/Mr. »" d « cxt a '" ™ ' 6te from thc flow cr, is called au ,„■,»/,«•,,; 

c al a s, which, as afterwards appearing somewhu^ «m ^ ^ ^ ^ 

J is composed of three inure orincuU ^ J ^ cu ,, ously the organs for repro- 

size of the true ca/yx, opens by de .ees , £^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ 

duction are enwrapped within ,.s »-"^; £ ^ „ is in fact m ouophyl.ous (a single 

nate with a UA but as these leave- enm^ 4 £ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

leaf), divided into five «gm«a. «* . of ^ rOTS of „„ Ws , arising purple, then 

ton, beautifully radiates over *■»■»*' „, w „, interspc ,sed with spots. There is 

J y possess a c«* *££££ ^ m row of *j ^ <W ; .hen 

next a ditch or hollow, m the tmdd e o « ^ ^ ^ , /mWs c0 „ v ergmg 

appears a mound of coalesced t^*£*S£ protccted , Acs the cell, in which tire hone, 
around the column. At the basrs of th s co ta* J ^ for purpose of 

is deposited, and a gW may be , fcundu, ^ he ^ t^ ^ „, A , sho 

the honey. There is also a U J^g** Thcsc arc broad, and become arched; and 
distance up this column proceed £*gg back of the oblong ackers, which oceasmns 
a , each end is a to*, to whtch are attached t ^ ^^ s , des havc 

1 very teadily to vibrate at "*£*££ the cente r «kc a por.manteau. At .he 
two 6^ fiUed «* >-» eaCh ° f t Hte J«,, whence proceed the three **. upr,ght, 
p,ace ff insertion of the five s.amtna s tl e ^ * depen(J . ng mm and morc 

Is may be seen at the first opeumg of .he 

The Mowing fine ,i„e S are ft™ t he pen of an arable and m „s, beannful young Lady. 

By Faith sublim'd, fair Passiflora steers 

Her Pilgrimage along this Vale of Tears, 
The hopes of heaven alone her thoughts employ, 
Christ is her glory, and the cross her joy. — 
As the deep organ sounds the hallow'd strain 
With solemn step proceeds the pious train. 

In polish'd censers, wrought with wondrous care, 
Five cherub boys the holy incense bear, 

Three pious virgins form her holy train 

Join in her pray'rs, and weep the « Lamb that's slain." 

With solemn step they tread the cloister's gloom, 

Seek its deep shade, and commune with the tomb. 

Hark ! from the walls what sacred anthem sounds 

With hymns of praise the vaulted roof resounds ! 


" He died ! he died !-The Saviour of mankind, 

" To save our souls, his spotless life resign'd; 

" Yes J low, with humble grace, th' Almighty's Son 
" Bow'd to the cross, and cried, < Thy will be done ' 

' Astonished Nature trembled at the sight, 
" And veil'd the guilty land in shades of night. 
" In lofty mountains roll'd the mighty flood, 
" Earth op'd her jaws, and drank his precious blood 
' Redemptw?i's imrs/ re-echoed through her caves- 
" The dead are rous'd, and burst their silent graves- 
" In hollow tones each from his vault replies, 
' We sle P l ^ peace secure with God to rise? ' 
" Death vanquish'd fled, and sought his fell abode • 
I wl^f d *$ ^ame, and hid her face from God, 

Whde Mercy, rising from the throne of grace 
" Pronounc'd free pardon to a sinful race."- 

Oh! may that cross on which our Saviour died 
Subdue our passions, and our guilty pride! 
That we amidst the general wreck shall rise 
Preserv'd for purer worlds, and brighter skies 
Mount the bless'd seats of Harmony and Love 
Be crown'd with bliss, and live with GOD above. 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 


■ J^ 

■' fS02 




This beautiful tribe of plants we owe to the discovery of a new world. They grow luxuriant 
in various parts of that continent, but are chiefly to be met with in South America. Murucuia 
is the ancient American name; and this is retained by Tournefort, but is dropped by Linnaeus. 
Elegantly hanging on its peduncle, or footstalk, the Alata Passion-flower far surpasses all its 
kindred both as to the elegance and brilliancy of its appearance. It exhibits much more of 
majesty than the rest, and discloses a trait in nature which has often puzzled shallow philoso- 
phers. In the quadrangular and blue passion-flowers you saw an involucrum consisting of three 
large concave orbicular leaves protecting the flower in the early stage; here we possess only 
three small serrated spear-shaped leaves, which affords abundant proof that use is not always 
the plan of nature, but that she indulges sometimes in ornament. Thus we have nipples which 
answer no other end but as a correspondence with our better halves. So also the stipules on 
the stalk are equally small, and, consequently, cannot serve the purpose of protection; but in 
such instances, we may remark, that nature is ceconomic. As another essential difference, we 
cannot fail to notice the double radiance, serving as a most elegant Indian parasol to ward off 
the piercing rays of an ardent sun from the organs destined to reproduce the species. Here 
the Filaments, Anthers, and Pistillum are compressed into a smaller space; and the Nectarium 
is first defended by small teeth placed in several rows, and as if this was not a sufficient guard, 
nature has also formed a complete barrier, by a thick membraneous expansion closely locking 
up this reservoir of nectar. The Alata Passionflower was first introduced into the English gar- 
den by Mr. Malcolm, in 1773. It, of course, arranges under the same class and order as the 
other Passion-flowers, and exhibits to a fervent imagination the same fancy of a crucifix; 
and here we might add, that the column in the centre is spotted as if stained with blood. 

Beneath the covert of o'erarching trees 

Bright Murucuia woos the cooling breeze. 

The passing Indian turns th' admiring eye, 

Smit by the glories of her crimson dye, 

And stops, in pleas'd attention, to survey 

Her vivid leaves and variegated ray. — 

But loftier thoughts the rising mind inspire 

When warm devotion lends her holy fire. 

Haply amid the convent's virgin train, 

Bosom'd in shades beyond the western main, 

At rosy morn, or evening's silent hour, 

Some fair Enthusiast views the tainted flower: 

When lo! to rapt imagination's eye 

Springs the sad scene of darken'd Calvary! 

The thorny crown the heavenly brows around, 1 

The scourging thongs, the galling cords that bound, \ 

And nails that piere'd with agonizing wound. 
Sudden she lifts to heaven her ardent eye 
In silent gaze and solemn ecstacy; 
Then, fill'd with timid hope and holy fear, 
Drops on the flower a consecrated tear. 




-. A*,V* 

V,>„.^i//,:,/„;/ /,, ( J > .//, 

Wi-/ /;//>// , /?//,, /. /,S'tr> 




Th,s climbing plant, introduced from Jamaica into our gardens in 1768, by Ptnhp M.ller .a 
supposed ,o be a variety of the A.ata, or winged Passion-flower. Like it, the stem .s quadrangular 
and winged, as the shaft of an arrow; and if it be allowed to use the same fancy as Lmnseus 
sometimes indulged, we should conjecture it to be an hybr.o, betwixt the common blue Pass.on- 
flier, and the llata. or winged. The involucre most the Uue "« *^ 
per calyx, and petals of the corolla, the ** the radiance lies flat on the corolla as with the 
ZL; but in Le, and configuration, resembles most the atata; whilst the mnerpart o the no- 
tary, and stamina, bear an higher affinity to the +* The leaf also ^^^^ 
,he tendril. As with the other Passion Flowers, it brings to m.nd the Mystenes of our rehgton. 

At length the fated term of many years 
The world's desire have brought, and lo! a God appears.. . . 
The Heav'nly babe the Virgin mother bears, 
And her fond looks confess the parent's cares; 
The pleasing burden on her breast she lays, 
Hangs o'er his charms, and with a tear surveys; 
The infant smiles, to her fond bosom prest, 
And wantons, sportive, on the mother's breast; 
A radiant glory speaks him all divine, 
And in the Child the beams of Godhead shine- 
Now time, alas ! far other views disclose. . . 
The blackest comprehensive scene of woes. 
See where man's voluntary sacrifice; 
He bows his head, and God, the Saviour, dies!... 
Fixt to the cross, his healing arms are bound, 
While copious mercy streams from every wound: 
Mark the blood-drops that life exhausted roll, 
And the strong Pang, that rends the yielding soul! 
As all death's tortures, with severe delay, 
Exult and riot in the noblest prey:... 
Lo! the bright Sun, his chariot backward drivn, 
Blots out the day, and perishes from Heav'n: 
Earth, trembling from her entrails, bears a part, 
And the rent Rock upbraids man's stubborn heart. 
The yawning Grave reveals his gloomy reign, 
And the cold clay-clad Dead start into life again! 



. // >//</< ■>.!<>// /// //.r 

with rariega s . 

^. '>>//</<>// , . '///•/;,///,,/ . ///,/ . / . fSOO, /y __ ' ' s//oV ///i> 




O R, 



The White Lily with variegated leaves is native of Persia, where it majestically presents its 
finely-polished bosom to the all-enlivening sun, the object of worship in eastern nations. How 
contrasted is this flower with our humble Lily of the Valley, which even hides its delicate pen- 
dulous head from the feeble rays of the spring! The White Lily has, however, like all other lilies, 
a corolla (or nuptial bed), consisting of six petals, three inward and three outward. The interior 
petals are artfully doable-grooved on the back, to receive the edges of the three exterior petals, 
for the greater security, before expansion, of the organs for reproducing the species, which are 
the six stamina (or males), each composed of a filament, elevating an a?ither, bicapsular, or consist- 
ing of two cells, or bags, containing the yellow farina, for rendering prolific the seeds contained 
within the pistillum (or female), the next part to be described, which has a three-cornered 
stigma, sitting upon a very conspicuous style, whose base is a triangular germen, containing the 
embryo-seeds.... The White Lily comes under the Class Hexandria, and Order Monogynia, 
of Linneeus, and in the reformed System, Class Six Males, Order One Female. It has 
been selected by us as illustrating, in the clearest manner, the parts of fructification, more 
especially when we add to it, a knowledge of the blue Passion-flower, and the Night-blowing 
Cereus. Our blessed Saviour thus alludes to it, when addressing his faint-hearted 

Behold the rising lily's dnowy grace; 

Observe the various vegetable race; 

They neither toil nor spin, but careless grow, 

Yet see how warm they blush! how bright they glow! 

What royal vestments can with them compare! 

What king so splendid, or what queen so fair!... 

If, ceaseless, thus the birds of heav'n he feeds, 
If o'er the fields Mcli lucid robed he spreads, 
Will he not care for you, ye faithless, say? 
Is he unmindful? or ye less than they? 


i i. /Ze*t naace /' t ft* t . • _ 

St"/**/*'// ,_//////.///,;/ /„//, /.,-,/,//'/__ / < //,,',,,/, 

If it be allowed to mix with sacred profane poetry, we would willingly add the admired 
verses of an old English bard, taken from « his Book of Plants/' 

Such as the lovely Swan appears 

When rising from the Trent or Thame, 
And as aloft his plumes he rears 

Darkens the less beauteous stream : 

So when this ]oyi\\\ Jlow'r is born, 

And does its native glories show ; 
Her clouded rivals she does scorn ; 

They're all but foils where lilies grow. 

Soon as the infant comes to light 

With harmless milk alone 'tis fed ; 
That from the innocence of white 

A gentle temper may be bred. 

The milky teat is first apply' d 

To fiercest creatures of the earth, 
But she can boast a greater pride, 

A Goddess 9 milk produced her birth*. 

When Juno in the days of yore 

Did with the great Alcides teem, 
Of milk the Goddess had such store, 

The nectar from her breast did stream, 

Whitening beyond the pow'r of art 

The pavement where it lay, 
Yet through the crevices some part 

Made shift to find its way. 

The Earth forthwith did pregnant prove 

With lily flow'rs supply'd, 
That scarce the milky way above 

With her in whiteness vy'd. 

Thus did the race of Man arise, 

When sparks of heav'nly fire 
Breaking through crannies of the skies, 

Did Earth's dull mass inspire. 

Happy those souls that can with me 

Their native white retain; 
Preserve their heav'nly purity, 

And wear no guilty stain. 

Peace in such habit comes array'd, 

This dress her Daughters wear ; 
Hope and Joy in white are clad, 

In sable weeds Despair. 

Thus Beauty, Truth, and Chastity 

Attired we always find, 
With inward Love these robes agree, 

With Virtue are conjoint. 

Nature on many Flow'rs beside 

Bestows a dusky white; 
On this she plac'd her greatest pride 

And spread it o'er with Light. Cowley. 

* The overflowing Milk of Juno (like that of the Virgin on the Holy Thistle) is said; to have produced both the Galaxy, or Milky Way, 
and the White Lily. 





/ -. 

'///'// ( \'//7////. 


O R, 


The Superb Lify is a native of North America, and was first introduced into England u> 1738, 
by Peter Collinson, Esq. It was then called the great yellow-dowering Martagon, and dis- 
tinguished from the purple, or common Turkscap, by having its leaves scattered, instead of 
being placed in a whorl. Its flowers rise in the form of a stately pyramid by very long pedun- 
culi or footstalks, each issuing from an axilla of the stem-leaf. In common with the liliaceous 
tribe it has no cal S x, a fleshy corolla, consisting of six petals, which, like the other Martagons, at 
first beautifully involve the organs for reproduction, and then become reflected, and curl more 
and more back, as the six stamina and pistillum advance towards perfection. At tins penod 
the anthers, like a double folding door, roll back their partitions, to disperse the fecundatmg 
pollen for the impregnation of the pisti.lum. We then behold these parts decay in progresston, 
the grand purpose of Nature being fulfilled, and the peduncles, or flower-stalks, wete 
before elegantly pendent, become rigidly erect. As the pericarp, or seed-vessel npens, tts 
to valves g,adua,.y separate, finely exhibiting that interlacement of fires whtch sowed 
* parts toother before maturity. In our picturesque plate the reader will find the nortUrn 
J Id S Wc which this plant requires, a circumstance happily eanght at by the poet m makmg 
his allegorical allusion to our flower. 

Fann'd by the summer gale, a Poplar stood 

Beside the margin of the silver flood; 

Beneath its playful gently-wav'ring shade 

A Lily proud her dazzling bloom display'd ! 

The flow'r complain'd, that stretching o'er her head 

The dark'ning tree her broadest umbrage spread. 

Not unattentive to the mournful strain, 

The master heard his fav'rite flower complain: 

The steady axe soon urg'd the fatal wound, 

And bow'd the stately Poplar to the ground! 

The Lily boastful now in full display 

Gave all her beauty to the garish day. 

But soon, her triumph ceas'd...tbe mid-day beam 

Pour'd on her tender frame a scorching stream. 

The plant then sick'ning, drooping, languid, pale, 

Calfd the soft show'r, and call'd the cooling gale; 

But no soft show'r, nor gale with cooling breath, 

Approach'd to save her from untimely death. 


■ ! 


. /////////%//>///////.(■' 


' L,,,:, 

,/ / , ■ 'M'/. /■// —JJ. ■ Mo-/ ///o//, .////„/,-, //><,/., 




This extremely foetid poisonous * plant will not admit of sober description. Let us therefore 
personify it. 

She + comes peeping from her purple crest with mischief fraught: from her green covert 
projects a horrid spear of darkest jet, which she brandishes aloft: issuing from her nostrils 
flies a noisome vapour infecting the ambient air: her hundred arms are interspersed with 
white, as in the garments of the inquisition; and on her swollen trunk are observed the 
speckles of a mighty dragon: her sex is strangely intermingled with the oppositely confusion 
dire! — all framed for horror; or kind to warn the traveller that her fruits axe poison-berries, 
grateful to the sight but fatal to the taste, such is the plan of Providence, and such her 
wise resolves. 



Thy soul's first hope! thy mother's sweetest joy!" 
Cried tender Laura, as she kiss'd her boy, 
Oh wander not where Dragon Arum show'rs 
Her baleful dews, and twines her purple flow'rs, 
Lest round thy neck she throw her snaring arms, 
Sap thy life's blood, and riot on thy charms. 
Her shining berry, as the ruby bright, 
Might please thy taste, and tempt thy eager sight: 
Trust not this specious veil; beneath its guise, 
In honey'd streams & fatal pouon lies." 

So Vice allures with Virtue' <t pleasing song, 
And charms her victims with a Siren d tongue. 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 

* From the root, however, of this plant, a powerful and useful sternutatory may be made. 

t In this description the author has had in view the fancy of the ancients respecting that being whom they represented as hostile to man. 

f Hj«* & xot) iro\v7nte 

Kan' ftokxix 11 ^ * *■*% 
Kpuvjo pivot XoxoiS 
YLoikuomss 'i f W t Wfr 

Lo! with unnumbered hands, and countless feet, 
The Fury comes, her destin'd prey to meet ; 
Deep in the covert hid. — 


X Linnseus places this plant in the class Gynandria, other authors refer it to Monoscia, and in our reformed system it comes under the 
class Many Males, order, flowers spathed. 


m ■ 



T h e^fly; 

Ah ! fleeting race! soon thy hour's fled, 
Soon the earth is cover'd with thy dead, 

Thy myriad people soon are gone; 
And frolic mirth 's no longer seen, 
Ah ! soon ye fill th' insatiate tomb, 

It scarce remains that ye have been! 

Thus struck with wonder I behold 
Man's thoughtless race, in error bold, 

Forget, nay scorn, the laws of Death; 
With these no projects coincide, 
Nor vows, nor toils, nor hopes, can guide, 

Each thinks he draws immortal breath! 
Each, blind to Fates approaching hour, 
Intrigues or fights for wealth or pow'r, 

And shtmVring dangers dare provoke: 
And he who, tott'ring, scarce sustains 
A century's age, plans future gains, 
And feels an unexpected stroke! 

Go on, unbridled, desfrate band, 

Scorn rocks, gulphs, winds, search sea and land, 

And spoil new worlds, wherever found: 
Seize, haste to seize the glittering prize, 
And sighs, and tears, and prayrs despise, 

Nor spare the temples holy ground! 

They go, succeed; but look again, 
The desperate band you seek in vain, 

Now trod in dust, the peasants scorn: 
But who that saw their treasures swell, 
That heard iK insatiate crew rebel, 

Would eer have thought them mortal born? 

See the world's Victor mount his car; 
Blood marks his progress wide and far, 

Sure he shall reign while ages fly: 
No; vanish'd like a morning cloud, 
The Heko was but just allow'd 

To fight, to conquer, and to die. 

And is it true, I ask with dread, 
That Nations, heap'd on Nations, bled 

Beneath his chariot's fervid wheel, 
With trophies to adorn the spot, 
Where his pale corse is left to rot, 

And doom'd the hungry reptile's meal? 

Yes! Fortune, weary'd with her play, 
Her toy, this hero, casts away; 

No haughty thoughts now fill his breast!— 
How changed his look!-how pale!-how cold!- 
Next made a spectre to behold 

In realms— where he shall never rest! 

,-^^^^^^^ ""■ " ,he " Ste - A " a, " ym * 



' " 




S^**fhjyfAJtAf** ' 

i.Md Polfios. 

u. Pitcher Plant. 

w.Venurb Fly Trap. 

Slither land Sculp t 

l.omhm.PuHuhetl by J)' Thornlon.Juiy utff. 



Dispersed over the arid* wilds of Africa, in pyramidal forms, issue the fleshy stems, desti- 
titute of leaves, of the Hirsute Stapelia. These stems are on every side armed with hooks like 
claws. The juices of this plant are so acrid, that the smart these occasion on the tongue will be 
sensible a long while, and even fatal, if tasted beyond a certain proportion. Nature has well 
marked it of the natural order, the Lurid, or poisonous, for the corolla, which is deeply cleft into 
five segments, is of a dusky purple, and dingy yellow, and speckled like the belly of a serpent, 
besides being fringed with hairs, which gives to this flower something of an animal appearance. 
It has likewise so strong a scent, resembling carrion, that blow-flies in abundance hover round it; 
and mistaking the corolla for flesh, deposit there their eggs, which are soon converted into real 
maggots, adding to the horror of the scene, some being seen writhing among the purple hairs 
of the flower, and others already dead for want of food, the vegetable in this rare instance de- 
ceiving and overcoming the animal creation. The star-like appearance in the centre is the Nec- 
tary, mingled with the five Stamina, and two Pistilla. Hence it arranges under the class Pen- 
tandria, order Digynia, of Linnaeus. We have been favoured with the following fine poetic 
effusion from the masterly pen of Dr. Shaw on this plant. 

'Mid the wild heights of Afric's stormy cape, 

The fell Stapelia rears her Gorgon shape; 

Spreads her rough arms, and turns, with scowling eye, 

Her bearded visage to the thund 'ring sky. 

To magic rites she bends her wayward care, 

And with unholy vapours taints the air, 

Distils with fatal art each secret bane, 

And gathers all the poisons of the plain. 

By native instinct round her drear abode 

Glides the green snake, or crawls the shapeless toad. 

Lur'd to the hag, by horrid spells subdued, 

The care-craz'd mother brings her num'rous brood, 

Hears the smooth tale, and trusts, in evil hour, 

The tender offspring to her guardian pow'r. 

The subtle fiend assumes a softer air, 

And falsely smiles, and feigns a mother s care: 

But gone the parent, 'mid the cavern's gloom 

The dire Enchantress drags them to their doom ; 

In pining atrophy to yield their breath, 

And slowly languish in the arms of death; 

Till, dried each wasted limb, each haggard eye, 

Their shrivell'd forms her hideous rites supply. 

No soft remorse her fell resolves can stay, 

Born of the rocks, as pitiless as they! 

So foul Canidia,\ with malignant joy \ 

Watch'd the slow progress of the buried boy ; 

So dire Erichtho,X fraught with spells accurst, 

Feign'd pious cares, and murder d while she nurst! 

So fierce Medea,% with relentless eye, 

And soul unmovd, beheld her children die ; 

And ruthless plung'd, by demon rage possess'd, 

The fatal dagger in each infant breast; 





* The Stapelias in our hot-houses never require to be watered. 

t Hor. Epod. 5. % Lucan. lib. 6. § Ovid. Epist xiii. 




1 he generality of these plants, inhabitants of South America, are parasitical, and growing at 
the roots of trees, shoot their stems upwards to a considerable height, which at every joint pro- 
duce fresh roots, extending like the Taenia,* and being voluble, attach themselves firmly to 
their stems and branches, and by exhausting these of their sap, finally deprive them of life. 
Our specimen, the Fetid Pothos, is an inhabitant of North America, and was introduced into 
this country by Peter Collinson, in the year 1763, and it shews first its spatha, which is of 
a yellow colour dashed with purple stripes, (the indications of poison), like an arum, inclosing 
a short spadix, on which are placed chequer-wise the sessile flowers, each of which possesses four 
stamina and one pistillum; hence it arranges under the Class Gynandria, Order Tetandria, 
and vice versa, as respects our Reformed Sexual System. The leaves, which we need not men- 
tion here, appear after the flowers. As the growth of its congeners is by rooting joints, so this 
poisonous herb is amazingly extended by suckers, and thus the Fetid Pothos spreads over a 
vast extent of bog, filling its whole atmosphere with poisonous exhalations, 

Placed where no nutmeg scents the vernal gales, 
Nor towering plaintain shades the mid-day vales; 
No grassy mantle hides the sable hills, 
No flow'ry chaplet crowns the trickling rills ; 
Nor tufted moss, nor leathery lichen creeps 
In russet tapestry o'er the crumbling steeps. 
No step retreating, on the sand impress'd, 
Invites the visit of a second guest ; 
No refluent fin th' unpeopled stream divides, 
No revolant pinion cleaves the airy tides ; 
Fierce in dread silence on the blasted heath 
Fell Pothos sits, the hydra-plant of death. 
Lo ! from one root, th' envenom' d soil below, 
A thousand vegetative serpents f grow; 
With horrid look the Hooded Monster spreads 
O'er ten square leagues his far-diverging heads; 
Or in one trunk entwists his tangled form, 
Looks o'er the clouds, and hisses to the storm. 
Steep 'd in fell poison, as his sharp teeth part, 
A thousand tongues in quick vibration dart ; 
Snatch the proud Eagle towering o'er the heath, 
Or pounce the Lion as he stalks beneath ; — 
Here at his root two scion-demons dwell, 
Breathe the faint hiss, or try the shriller yell; 
Rise, flutt'ring in the air on callow wings, 
And aim at insect-prey their lesser stings. 


* So the lone Taenia, as he grows, prolongs 

His flattend form with young adherent throngs.— Darwin. 
The Tape-worm dwells in the intestines of men and animals, and grows old at one extremity only, producing an infinite series of young 
ones at the other; the separate joints have been called Gourd-worms, each of which possesses a mouth of its own, with organs of digestion. 
These produce a dreadful emaciation of the body, from the quantity of chyle they rob the constitution of, and finally death. 

f This genus was anciently called Dracontium, from Draco, a dragon; and our specimen was named Dracontium toetidum. Vide 
Miller's Dictionary, the charming edition of it, by Marty n. 




This plant, so singular for its leaves and flowers, is native of Virginia, and grows in bogs, or 
shallow water. It was introduced into our gardens in the year 1752. The leaves in their 
infant state are flat, tapering, and of one compact substance; but at a certain age, at the top 
the appearance of a lid is seen, bent down, or rather then resembling the upper bill of a bird; 
afterwards the leaf opens from within until it enlarges itself into a triangular hollow vase, when 
the lid turns back, taking the form of a friar's cowl. This contains water, and in droughts it is 
said that the lid falls down over the mouth of the tube, serving as a covering to it, to prevent 
the exhalation. It is called the Pitcher- Plant, because small birds repair to it, and drink out of 
the hollow leaf. It is also named the Side-Saddle flower, from its flower being supposed to 
resemble a woman's pillion. The leaves, as well as flowers, are radical. Each flower is elevated 
on a long scape. It is defended by a double calyx. The outer consists of three small leaves: 
the inner of five orbicular green leaves. The petals of the corolla are five, more oblong, of a 
pale yellow. The stamina are numerous, and lie concealed under the target-formed stigma of the 
pistillum, which perishing, with the stamina, leaves the swollen germen on the elevated scape. 
The concealment of courtship here has furnished the poet with the following beautiful lines. 

In vain a num'rous race of gentle swains 

To Sarracenia pour'd their tender strains: 

In vain their ardent pray'r, their artless lay; 

Of tyrant vice she fell the hapless prey. — 

A libertine bred in the school of lies 

With lawless passion to the beauty flies; 

Gain'd her weak heart, and soon he turn'd from thence, 

Scarce having yet indulged his eager sense; 

Then the fell Furies, sailing through the air, 

Aim their keen weapons at the tortur'd fair; 

Scorn in her bleeding bosom strikes his dart, 

And sad Repentance writhes around her heart. 

Remorse her stinging snakes in fury throws, 

And Madness heightens her exalted woes. — 

Poor injur d stiff Wer! bid adieu to peace; 

Not in this world of sin thy pangs will cease: 

Not till kind Mercy takes thee to her breast, 

And bears thy spirit to the realms of rest. 

Frances Arabella Rowden. 





Ihe Sacracenia is said, by Bartram, in his Travels into North America, to contain a 
quantity of pure limpid water; and to open its lid when this reservoir is nearly empty, and close 
it when full. He mentions, also, his having tasted this water, and it was clear, limpid, and 
refreshing as the morning dew. Examining into the interior of these pitcher-like leaves, he 
found them beset with short stiff hairs, which all pointed downwards, and (very like our mouse- 
traps) allow a passage for entrance, but all return is denied, and hence the Sacracenia has the 
property of destroying insects. But in this it is far surpassed by another bog-plant, introduced 
among us in 1765, called, for this very circumstance, Muscipula, the fly-catcher; and Dion^ea, 
a name for Venus, on account of its beautiful ivhite flowers, which rise in a general umbel, from a 
long scape, each flower being terminal, consisting of five milk-white petals, ten stamina, and one 
pistillum, somewhat resembling the Geranium. Its radical leaves, which are in circular order, 
are of a most extraordinary construction, having the peduncles winged,* and exactly similar in 
shape and contrivance to our rat-trap, with spikes in the center, and teeth around, also baited 
from glands which distil honey. No sooner does a deluded insect touch this honey, than the 
trap instantly closes, and with such swiftness, as never to miss its prey, and with such a spring 
as to defy all exertions for escape, and only opens when the insect is dead, when it expands 
again for fresh murders ! 

Haste, glittering Insect, tenant of the air, 

Oh steer from hence, your rapid course afar! 

With tend'rest words, sweet becks, and nods, and smiles, 

Should Dionjea lure you to her toils, 

Caught by her art in vain you try your pow'r, 

A certain death awaits you at that hour; 

On you will Rivals point the furious dart, 

And plunge th' envenom d weapon in your heart! 

* We are inclined to this opinion, from observing the structure of the leaves of the Drosera Rotundifolia (Round-leaved Sundew), 

a native of our climate, which has also irritable round leaves, but on long plain peduncles or footstalks, whose traps are also toothed, and on 

each tooth day and night hangs a clammy globule, which looks like dew, hence its English appellation. It has Five Stamina and Five 

Pistilla. The Poet thus celebrates it. 

Queen of the Marsh, imperial Drosera treads 

Rush-fringed banks, and moss embroider'd beds; 

Redundant folds of glossy silk surround 

Her slender waist, and trail upon the ground; 

Five sister-nymphs collect with graceful ease, 

Or spread the floating purple to the breeze; 

And Jive fair youths with duteous love comply 

With each soft mandate of her moving eye. 

As with sweet grace her snowy neck she bows, 

A zone of diamonds trembles round her brows; 

Bright shines the silver halo, as she turns; 

And, as she steps, the living lustre burns. 


. fa'/u/iA+vn </'/. 

f '<//,/,,,/// .>>„/// 

. l,„/,,^ /:,//, j,./ 4 ©!' '^.Uvh.1 <..'■ 






In the dreary season of winter, nature has partially indulged the eye with ever-greens, the 
presage of the resurrection of animated beings, and of the returning zephyr; and none of this 
class claims our attention, for the beauty of its flowers, and wisdom of its contrivance, more 
than the Pontic Rhododendron, which was introduced into our gardens from the Levant 
in 1763. The flower is funnel-shaped beneath, and then expands into the resemblance of five 
Petals, which, in fact, are only five Lacinice, or Segments, of a monopetalous Corolla. The upper 
Segment performs the office of Nectary, is grooved in the middle, and so fertile is this part in 
the formation of honey, that you may observe a sweet globule in almost every expanded 
flower. From the cup of the corolla issue ten Stamina, the Filaments of each are beset with 
fine hairs, and are curvilinear, in order better to perform the useful office of dispersing the 
Farina on the Pistillum, which is contained in two Cells, each of which open at tops. The 
Pistillum takes the same elegant curve as the Stamina: but when impregnation has been 
accomplished, what appeared before a cluster of flowers, the stamina and corollas having withered, 
now is seen entirely to consist of pistilla, each one displaying its pentagonal germen, the style, 
and stigma, and assuming its distinguished rank; and Nature now delights us with the art shewn 
in adjusting their respective places around the stem. Nor was the kind intention of Provident 
Nature less conspicuous in the infant state of the flower, when each bud was protected by 
a corresponding Stipule, which, as it ceased its utility, fell from off the stem, gradually unfolding 
to the admiring eye of the spectator, a superb group of purple crowning flowers, which, as 
being hardy natives of wild situations, cast an air of dignity over such solitary scenes. 

O'er pine-clad hills, and dusky plains, 
In silent state Rhodonia reigns, 
And spreads, in beauty's softest bloom, 
Her purple glories through the gloom. 

There, by the solemn scene enchanted, 

The melancholy maiden strays; 
And by dark streams and fountains haunted, 

Well pleas'd each rocky wild surveys : 
To her more fair those shadowy bowers 
Than glittering halls and castled tow'rs. 

Nor, happy less, who thus unknown, 
Can call the woods and shades his own! 
And, wand'ring o'er the moss-clad plain, 
At will indulge the pensive strain! 
Array'd in smiles, array'd in terrors, 

Great Nature's awful form admire, 
And from the world, and all its errors, 

In silent dignity retire! 




- J -._ El 

Wa //tst .*(•/////. 

/-/v,_^//:,/,y. // y A/ ,„ r /;/_-/■-. y^,,^ 


O R, 

M E A D I A. 

It has its present appellation from its native country, and from the resemblance its growth bears 
to the ordinary Cowslip, possessing, like it, leaves radical, and an erect scape or flower-stem* '. From the 
summit of the scape, which is fringed round with numerous small and regular leaves, the peduncles 
or flower-stalks, as in umbelliferous plants, issue in every direction, each bearing a very beautiful 
flower. These consist of a Calyx composed of one leaf, divided into five regular green segments, 
which at first embrace the young flower, and afterwards expand; a Corolla consisting of five delicate 
lilac segments, which, like those of the Calyx, first enclose the more essential parts, the organs for 
reproduction, which having acquired a due perfection, then beautifully reflect themselves, in order 
that these may have a due quantity of light and heat. The organs for reproduction are the five 
Stamina, which issue through the mouth or tube of the Corolla; each filament being firmly pressed by as 
many nectaria, leaving however free the barb-like Anthers, which curiously clasp each other, the 
two opposite hollows on the sides firmly fitting together, for the protection of the fecundatingyanwa, 
which, when these separate, is thrown forth with a spring upon the Pistillum, proceeding from the 
centre of the flower. When these are longer than the Stamina, Nature usually adopts the device 
of forming, as we see here, pendidous flowers. We have yet further to remark the unceasing care 
of Providence, whilst Nature appeared to be only industrious to make the habitation of man gay 
and delightful, she was carrying on her principal design, being intent upon the continuance, and 
preservation, of the species. The story of the American Cowslip fully explains this. For the seeds 
becoming impregnated, those segments, which looked the other day so charming, separate in disor- 
der, shrink, and wither ; the Stamina seceding from each other, with their empty Anthers, perish ; 
even the Stigma and Style become dry ; crowning the fruitful Ge?men, which increases day by day ; 
now we may observe the reflected segments of the Calyx to assume their first form, closing round 
each prolific Germen ; and the Peduncles, which were before bent downwards, moving with every 
Zephyr, gradually become rigid and erect, giving to the plant in this stage as much of form and 
stiffness, as it had before of lightness and elegance t In its perfect state it might easily raise to 
our fancy the image of a vegetable sky-rocket in different periods of explosion, or some might conceive 
it to resemble a number of light shuttlecocks, fluttering in the air. This plant Mr. Catesby in his 
natural history of Carolina called Mead i a, after the famous Dr. Mead, which appellation Linnaeus 
has rejected, styling it in his works, Dodecathon (the twelve Heathen Gods), on account of the 
singular beauty, and number of its flowers. It comes under his Class V. Pentandria, five 
males, Order I. Monogynia, one female, and in our reformed system, Class Five Stamina, 
Order, One Pistillum. It is thus elegantly personified by Dr. Darwin. 

Me adit's soft chains five suppliant beaux confess, 
And hand in hand the laughing belle address ; 
Alike to all, she bows with wanton air, 
Rolls her dark eye, and waves her golden hair. 


* What a difference in this scape compared with that of the American Aloe ! 
t The instinct-like actions of the Meadia have a great resemblance to those of the Superb Lily before described. 


Vv^/V///._^///.//vv/ /,,/<<■ /. /*<>>,/■,//>, '///,>;,,/„ 





This beautiful shrub was introduced into our gardens from North America by Peter Collinson, 
Esq. in 1736. It grows to two feet in height, and sends out several upright branches, which 
are beset with flowers like a cluster of bees. Each flower is rotate, and possesses a pistillum in 
the centre, surrounded by ten males, or stamina. The filaments are like the radii of a wheel, 
and the anthers are each inclosed in niches of the corolla. As these filaments increase they 
form a bow, and when the elasticity is superior to the resistance of the niches enclosing the 
anthers, each in turn springs forth, ejaculating the pollen over the pistillum in the centre. The 
contrivance of nature, in this instance, to continue on the species is worthy our thought and 
admiration. It comes under Class Decandria, ten male, Order Monogynia, one female, 
of Linn,£US. We have been so fortunate as to be favoured by the following beautiful lines on 
this plant, which afforded to the poet an opportunity of a very grand comparison. 


High rise the cloud-capp'd hills where Kalmia glows 

With dazzling beauty, 'mid a waste of dnows, 

O'er the wild scene she casts a smiling eye, 

The earth her bed, the skies her canopy. — 

Thus from the north, in undulating streams, 

Glance after glance, the polar radiance gleams, 

Or, in expanding glare, at noon of night, 

Fills the red zenith with unbounded light. 

Quick fly the timid herds in wild amaze, 

While arms unseen clash dreadful 'mid the blaze. 

Th' affrighted shepherd to his cot retires, 

Nor dares to gaze upon the quiv'ring fires: 

The crouching dogs their master's feet surround, 

And, fix'd by fear, lie torpid on the ground: 

Loud shrieks the screaming owl, and flits away, 

Scar'd by the lustre of unlook'd-for day : 

E'en the grim wolf his nightly prey forsakes, 

And silent in his gloomy cavern quakes, 

Till skies serene their starry groupes display, 

And each terrific phantom dies away. 


. //,/////,>/■// // 

ll '<///>/.>'■'■/■ ,><■///// 

,'(■//,/>// ,_ //,//.•/,,/ /y _ £/ m , //,■/,//-;/ r /',/ ^ /''/AV^ 






This beautiful plant was introduced into our gardens in 1778 by Dr. Fothergill, who obtained 
the seeds from China. Its Latin specific name was given it in honour of the Countess of Tanker- 
ville, a cultivator of flowers, the elegant and refined pleasure of virtuous and noble minds. Its 
leaves are ensate, plaited, and often somewhat revolute. The flowers are elegantly disposed 
upon the scape, three together at the base, then opposite, and clustered above. In their infant 
state these are protected by a green spatha, which drops as the flowers advance; these then beau- 
tifully unfold their five brooding petals, which are white above, but of a brown red beneath, 
elegantly contrasting with a bell-shape nectary, exteriorly white at its base, but marked with a 
dark purple at its mouth, and of a lighter tinge. The inside of the tube itself is of a dark purple, 
but a pale line runs along its centre towards the horn : this conceals the organs of generation, 
which are curiously fashioned, for as in the Orchis tribe, the anthers are twin, depending, and 
lodged within cells, closely connected with the stigma, which is supported by a fleshy style, but the 
germen is exterior. It comes under the class of Gynandria, Order Diandria, of Linn^us. 

Sweet Flower, whose modest beauties blow 

Deep in the green and silent vale, 
Where willows, bending o'er the stream, 

Wave gently to the passing gale! 

So, in thy native Sina's shades, 

Like thee, sequester d and serene, 
Soft smiling sit her pensive maids, 

Pleas'd with the solitary scene. 

There, list'ning to some magic tale, 

Of fabled bliss, or fancied woe, 
They deck with art the silken veil, 

Or tend the flowers that round them blow. 

From moss-clad rocks and tangled shades 

The murmuring waters roll around; 
Sweep through the gardens green arcades, 

And shine along the varied ground. 

On waving boughs the plumy race 

Sweet carol from the blossom'd spray ; 
While, glittering in each pictur'd vase, 

The golden-scaled beauties play. 

Domestic cares and duteous love 

In turn their tender thoughts employ; 
And form within their green alcove 

A happiness that cannot cloy. 



. //,■//,/, /.K>// ■/////.*■ 

A////.;/,,/ /■//_ /> x y/"s ///,>,, 





This beautiful plant is native of warm climates, and was early introduced into our gardens 
even as ar baek as the time of Gerard, who mentions it as growing in his garden in 1596. 
*rom a tuberous, horizontal, knotty root, proceed several stalks, which in their early state, are 
protected by the young leaves, which are beautifully convoluted, and open at top, but as the stem 
nses these take their position around it, alternate, spreading out to the extent of a foot in 
length, and half a foot in breadth, channelled, undulated, with parallel nerves running to the 
membranous edges; the leaves at their bases encompass the stem. The flowers at first are all 
covered by a common green Spatha, this afterwards embraces the lower part of the flower-stalk- 
the flowers are in spikes, often two together, first protected by a small oblong Involucre, and 
another by its side, resembling a small leaf; the Perianth consists of three small, concave, spear- 
hke, coloured leaves ; the Corolla is sexpartite, the three outer lacing or segments, are concave, 
spear-hke thriee the length of the leaves of the perianth; and the three inner lacinia. are twice 
the length of these, two of them ascending, one turned to the side, often bifid, forming a kind of 
upper hp, or helmet protecting the Nectary, which is also deeply bipartite, the upper lacinia 
of which contains both the sessile Anther, and the spatulate Pistil; its extreme part is first 
ascending, then rather revolute, but the under lacinia is revolute in a contrary direction to the 
other, and forms, as it were, the under lip of this pseudo-ringent Flower. Impregnation being 
performed, the flower (as it is called) being gone by, the swollen Germen next appears beset with 
points, crowned with the three-leaved perianth above, and the two scaly leaves below, or invo- 
lucres and it afterwards becomes a rough Capsule, three-sided, three-celled, containing a triple 
row of seeds the size of a large pea, black, shining, so hard as to be used as shot by the Indians 
and by the Roman Catholics as beads, for making their Rosaries. It comes under Class I of 
Linn;eus. Monandria, one husband, and Order I. Monogynia, one wife. We have been 
so fortunate as to be favoured with the following most elegant and appropriate lines on this 
beautiful flower by a poet, who has often before very kindly obliged us. 

Where sacred Ganges * proudly rolls 
O'er Indian plains his winding way, 
By rubied rocks and arching shades f, 
Impervious to the glare of day, 

Bright Canna, veil'd in Tyrian robe, 
Views her lov'd lord with duteous eye; 
Together both united bloom, 
And both together fade and die 

Thus, where Benares' % loft y towers 
Frown on her Ganges' subject wave, 
Some faithful widow'd bride repairs, 
Resolv'd the raging fire to brave. 

True to her plighted virgin vow 
She seeks the altar's radiant blaze, 
Her ardent prayers to Brahma § pours, 
And calm approaching death surveys. 

With India's gorgeous gems adorn'd, 
And all her flowers, which loveliest blow: 
" Begin," she cries, " the solemn rites, 
u And bid the fires around me glow. 

" A cheerful victim at that shrine 
" Where nuptial truth can conquer pain, 
" Around my brows rich garlands twine, 
H With roses strew the hallo w'd plain. 

" Near yon deep grove the pyre ascends, 
" Where, pale in death, Calindus lies ; 
" Soon shall these arms, no more withheld, 
" Embrace him in his kindred skies. 

" Friends of my youth, your plaints forbear, 
" Nor with a tear these rites profane ; 
" Ere long, the sun, that now declines, 
" Shall see me 'midst the sainted train. 

" Mother, my last embrace receive ; 
" Take, sisters, take this parting kiss: 
" A glorious martyr decks your race, 
" And leaves you for the realms of bliss. 

" Hark! from the clouds his voice I hear; 

Celestial visions round me fly! 
" I see the radiant shape appear, 

His image beckons from the sky. 



" Haste, holy Bramins ! light the blaze 
" That bears me to my parted love: 
" I fly, his seraph form to meet, 
" And join him in the realms above ||." 



' After the mournful sacrifice, the ashes of the faithful widow are collected and deposited in 
an urn, and placed in the family sepulchre ; and it is both an affecting and interesting sight 
to see the Hindoos proceeding in groups, carrying flowers in their hands, which they spread 
over the tomb of the deceased, at the same time they chaunt solemn songs in honour of the 

AN . 



Ah say, why tearful is the sadden'd eye? 

Why weeps pale Sorrow o'er the mournful tomb? 

Is it that Death's dark cloud with deep'ning gloom 
Has swept Life's cheerful morn and smiling sky? 
Yet, sorrowing Pair, whose fond parental breasts 

Still mourn departed loveliness and worth ; 
Yet, yet look up to where your Angel rests, 

And mounts secure from all the woes of earth ! 

And thou, lorn Sister, lovelier in thy tears, 
O wipe the liquid sorrow from thy brow ; 

And thou, Companion of her once gay years, 
Smile that a Seraph claims thy friendship now ; 


For in robes of glory beaming 
High she trips the azure ground, 
Where, in sounds of rapture streaming 
All the harps of Heav'n resound ! 

Falls, in strains of music dying, 
Streams, that warble as they flow, 
Symphonies in Zephyrs sighing, 
Ever breathing soft and slow ; 

Fields, that know no winter dreary, 
Groves, to heav'nly musing dear, 
There her charm'd eye never weary, 
Never tir'd her ravish'd ear ! 


Lift, lift, fond Pair, the drooping head; 
O let the Smiles, so soon that fled, 

Again salute th' enliven'd Morn! 
Hush, hush Affection's mournful sigh, 
And wipe from out the tear-dew'd eye 

The pearls that Woe's pale cheek adorn. 


Ye Choirs of Harmony on high, 
Who tune the spheres that charm the sky, 
For ever rolling round th' eternal throne; 
Quick with your magic sounds unfold 
Yon portals of celestial gold ;— 
A Sister Minstrel comes to claim her own. 
Haste, bring the vest of shining white, 
The glitt'ring harp, and crown of light, 
And pour a flood of radiance on her way !- 
She comes, she comes ! upon her brow 
Life beams immortal triumph how ; 
Her eyelids open on eternal day! 


Hark, how the golden lyres around 
Roll all the majesty of sound, 
As loud she hails her native sky! 
Now wide upon the raptur'd sight 
Burst beatific visions bright ; 
Death binds her lovely form no more ; 
She bursts the bonds that chain'd before, 
And puts on — immortality. 






XJeneath the meadow's flowery breast 
The Wild -Bee* builds her humble nest, 
And, anxious, to her mossy dome 
Conveys her gather'd treasures home. 
Each opening gem that scents the Jield 
She bids its choicest fragrance yield ; 
Bright Pimpernel, of lively hue, 
Fair Speedwell, rich in varied blue ; 
And Orchis, clad in speckled bloom, 
And the sweet Trefoil's soft perfume; 
And Euphrasy, of modest mein, 
And Meadow-sweet, the vernal queen. 
Sometimes amid the garden's maze 
Secure the little Plunderer strays; 
Robs the gay Roses blushing dell ; 
Hangs in the Lilys silver bell; 
Or from Rhodonids purple flower 
Culls sweets to fill her waxen bower. — 
So lives the happy rural Maid, 
By no ambitious wishes sway'd; 
Fair tenant of the peaceful grove, 
Content with industry and love! 


* Bees, besides extracting from flowers honey and wax, in a way that no chemist, however great their art, could accomplish, in re- 
turn, perform the office of bridegroom to flowers, by the conveyance of the fertilizing meal from one flower to another. 

The Humble Bee, which we have introduced into our picture, differs, we believe, in manners from the common, or domestic bee, only 
bv forming; its nest under ground. Its cells are in the shape of acorns, attached to each other by a waxen thread, so as to resemble in the 
total a bunch of grapes; but here the presiding Queen is without wings, and smooth, and being all over of a shining black, may be compared 
to the Queen of Ethiopia. Each morning she sends out one of her subjects, who instantly obeys; and making a buzzing noise at the gate of 
the hive for near half an hour, by the motion of the wings alone, rouses from their slumbers the rest, who obey this summons, and then pro- 
ceed to their several useful labours for the commonwealth. The Queen daily visits each cell, and always proceeds with several in her suit, 
and the rest make room for her to pass, when she directs the whole plan of operations. This insect is too nearly allied to flowers not to have 
found admission amongst them, and being once introduced, there needs no apology with the sentimental reader for delaying his attention a 
little, by a slight and elegant poetic effusion, even on an insect i 







■ Where sacred Ganges.] The Ganges has been celebrated in all ages not only on account of the clearness of its water, which does not 
become putrid, though kept for years, as also for its sanctity. This water is conveyed to great distances, being esteemed necessary in the 
performance of certain religious ceremonies. All parts of the Ganges are said to be holy, but some particular parts are accounted to be more 

so than others, to which places thousands resort at certain seasons of the year, in order to purify themselves. Fide Maurice s Indian 

Antiquities, Vol. I. p. 239. 

f Arching shades.] Poetry and painting are called kindred arts; but the former oftentimes rises superior to the powers of the latter. 
Thus Virgil's description of Fame : 

" Now Fame, tremendous fiend! without delay, 
Through Lybian cities took her rapid way; 
Fame, the swift plague, that every moment grows, 
And gains new strength and vigour as she goes. 
First small with fear, she swells to wond'rous size, 
And stalks on earth, and tow'rs above the skies; 
Whom, in her wrath, to heav'n, the teeming earth 
Produc'd the last of her gigantic birth; 
A monster huge, and dreadful to the eye, 
With rapid feet to run, or wings to fly, 
Beneath her plumes the various fury bears 
A thousand piercing eyes and list'ning ears; 
And with a thousand mouths and babbling tongues appears 
Thund'ring by night through heav'n and earth she flies, 
No golden slumbers seal her watchful eyes; 
On tow'rs or battlements she sits by day, 
And shakes whole realms with terror and dismay." 

Thus we could not introduce in our back-ground the Ficus Religiosa, or Indian Fig-tree, (called so from its producing a delicious fruit 
of a bright scarlet colour, shaped like a fig,) overshadowing one of the noblest rivers in India. This tree rises at first much higher than our 
tallest oaks, and then sends out from the top lateral branches, and from thence drop other branches, which, reaching the ground, take root 
and become trees, so that the canopy above continually extends, and furnishes new supports; thus constituting a forest of a singletree, under 
the shade of which 10,000 persons have been known, upon religious occasions, to repose. Milton's account of this tree is equally correct 
and sublime. 

" So counsell'd he, and both together went 
Into the thickest wood ; there soon they chose 
The fig-tree; not that tree for fruit renown'd, 
But such as at this day to Indians known, 
In Malabar and Decan spreads her arms, 
Branching so broad and long, that in the ground 
The bended twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother tree, a pillar d shade, 
High overarched, and echoing walks between; 
There oft the Indian herdsman, shunning heat, 
Shelters in cool, and tends his pasturing herds." 

Par. Lost, Book ix. 

% Benares lofty towers.] Benares is one of the most ancient cities of Indostan ; and besides various temples dedicated to almost innumerable 
deities (the fancies of the mind), it once boasted a pagoda (or sacred temple) of an immense size, in the centre of the city. This was situate close 
to the shore of the Ganges, into which stream, according to the account of Tavernier, a regular flight of steps descend, leading directly down 
from the gates of the pagoda. The body of this temple is constructed in the form of a vast cross, allusive to the four elements, with a very high 
cupola in the centre of the building, but somewhat pyramidal towards the summit; and at the extremity of every one of the four parts of the 
cross there is a tower, to which there is an ascent on the outside, with balconies at stated distances, affording delightful views of the city, the 
river, and adjacent country. That execrable spirit of bigotry, which actuated the mind of Aurengzeb, prompted that remorseless persecutor 
of the Hindoo faith to pollute this venerable fabric, and insult the religion of Brahma in its most ancient sanctuary. After having committed 
in the sanctuary the most wanton acts of atrocity, he levelled this venerable pagoda with the ground, and erected over its very site two lofty 
Mahommedan minarets, or mosques, the height of the former pagoda, which Mr. Forster, in his elegant but concise account of this city, says, 
" at the distance of eight miles, strongly attracts the eye of the traveller who approaches Benares on the river from the east quarter, and 
which, from their elevated height, seem to look down with triumph and exultation on the humbled pride and degraded devotion of this' once 
flourishing city and university." Fide Maurice's Indian Antiquities, Vol. III. p. 32. 


§ To Brahma pours.] The subject is so extremely interesting, that of the great God himself, the author of our being, omniscient, omni- 
present, and omnipotent, that the reader will forgive our entering widely here into the discussion of primitive religion, in order to prove that 
in all Nations the wise have worshipped one only supreme God, but the vulgar the pictures of his attributes. 

The wisest among the Hindoos believe that there exists one supreme God, whom they denominate Brahme, the Highest. He is repre- 
sented with four heads, as denoting omnipresence and omniscience; and he is the father of Brahma, Veesnu, and Seeva, a trinitarian 
god, most probably alluding to the actions of creating, upholding, and annihilating, or changing. This trinity of the godhead, armed with 
almighty power, is represented in sculpture with three heads. The countenances of Brahma and Veesnu are placid and smiling; and that 
of Seeva severe and vengeful. They occasionally, according to their creed, separate into their respective persons, and Veesnu has'appeared, 
following their tradition, nine several times, on earth, for the sake of mankind. 

In the Geeta, or holy book, there will be found this sublime address to Brahme. " Thou, O mighty Being, art greater than Brahma 
Veesnu, and Seeva, the prime Creator, the eternal God, the God of gods. Thou art incorruptible, distinct from all other substances, for these! 

at thy word, are transient. Thou art before alloth^ 

thing., and art worthy above all to be known ! thou art the head abode and by thee, infimt ft « cQuid P^ ^ rf 

The troe God, says the '^ ^,^ <^ <* D ^ * <* "* - ** 

truth, without being confounded by the blaze for them alone they J ^ ^ ^^ Godhead> and 

of his unity. From the vulgar eye th.sdoetru^ ™ ^^^^^ of the Bramins (L priests) more 
BraAnia was one ot the persons of the Trinity, to whom p^jm 7 2%eotogy fol the last Note to 

addressed. Fide Maurices Indian Antiquities, Vol. II. p. 7 1 • See also a Jarther Mtouni j V 

£fte Carina. 


. , • rv n < t i. ,nH fW™ a fragment of the theology of the Magi. This historian mentions, " that the 
Plutareh has left us, in his * £~?^£&£to*i2L'-i *eZdd«MTT«A .ometime. » tw* «W- 

ancient Persians adored but one sole supreme De.ty, but they considered the Uodiv Oromazes, because 

nations from his substance, and at other times as the first productions ^J^J^^Z d of the sprfng, and that of Mvthras 
he was never to be forgotten: but the festival of the godde ^-«- -s ob-n,ed on ^ ^ tX / ( J tions , a nd the men did 

£££££ harder to preserve the sou. from a„ hua ^o, wh -j^^—^ ^ J^L of all incor- 

There is a fragment «J^^^£^«^*ZX^^ him, o/.ike him. He is the author of all 

^^X^n^rSl^XT^SL Lings, and the wisesfof all intelligent natures; the father of eouity, the 

parent of good laws, ^^^ J ^^^^^^^^ «re expands itself; by means of which, not only bodies 
He thus describes Heaven. In the J«x» ot the i P y P first ^ He diffuses himself every 

but spirits become visible In the midst of ^*~££ ^ anner . Near him is Lted the God Mvthras, or the second * spirit, 

^Z^^^Go^^Z^^^ZotL the first rank are the ^ the most sublime intelligences; in the lower 

spheres are an endless number of Genii of all the different orders. 

EGYPTIAN THEOLOGY. in his treatise of Isis and Osiris, tells us f " that the theology of the Egyptians had two meanings: the one holy and symbolical, 

Plutarch, his treatise rf ammals which th had in their temples, and which they seemed to adore, 

the other vulgar «d ^STTSm te divin'e attributes. Pursuant to this distinction, he says, that Osiris signifies the active 

S£ or Z2XSXZ2 SS£ or * of his operation; Orus the first production of his power, the model or plan by 

Whi They e ^^^^«^^ «? * * — le ° f — - " *"* ^ inSCripd0n ' " l ™ ~ 
and from me .IT th inpFJ*^ G<)ds several rf ^ ductions rf the Deity , but their pries ts did not trans- 

form d^td ^SSLtbh.: rivers, winds, vegetables, or bodily forms and motions. This would be as ridiculous as to 
form, dissolve, and jc ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ and shuttle> are the weaver . Su ch 

TsTe I ^O^tt^'t^lXtnly powers, whom they blaspheme whilst they give the name of Gods to beings of an insensible, 
senseless notions a .in g y _ , r ^ ^ ^ fc material and tQ be percelved by our senses , 

rS^r55tTSi-5?S thereL different God, As the sun is common to aU the world though called by different 
Tme, in different pices- so there is but one sole supreme mind or reason, and one and the same Providence that governs the world, though 
^SZSH nndrdiftrent names, and has appointed some inferior powers for his ministers." Such, according to Plutarch, was the 

^^^JS££!J 3SS52TS5: h-elf thus, when writing against Cslsus. - The .Egyptian philosophy 
have subhme noils with regard to the divine Nature, which they keep secret, and never discover to the people but under a veil of fables 
and a Wories cZZ is like a man who has travelled into that country; and though he has conversed with none but the ignorant vulgar, 
vet Sit So Ts Lao that he understands the Egyptian religion. All the Eastern nations, the Persians, the Indians the Syrians 
tt^SZZ nnder their religious fables. The wise men of all those religions see into the sense and true meaning of them, whilst 
the vulgar go no farther than the exterior symbol, and see only the bark that covers them. 


The learned among the Greeks had also true notions of God. First, of the Poets. 

Omheus rises to this sublime description of the unknown God. j=t »i_. 

^ Sere £Lt*£* exalted above, and prior to all other beings, the author of all things, even the ather, and of every thing that , s 
below the 1L. This exalted Being is Life, Light, and Wisdom; which three names express only one and the same Power, who formed 

311 "SS^SS^^ 'OS* Pagination, and the indecent allegories with which he often dishonours the divine Nature, 
has several sublime conceptions of the supreme God. 

First, of the Place of God. 

" O Father of mankind, superior lord ! 

On lofty Ida's holy hill ador'd; 

Who in the highest heavn has fix'd thy throne, 

Supreme of Gods! unbounded and alone." 

II. vii. 241. 

* - & N e it is thus that Mythras is called in the oracles which pass under Zoroaster's name. Doubtless they are not genuine ; but they contain the most ancient 
r.tinns InTthe style of the Eastern theology, according to Psellus, Pletho, Plotinus, and all the Platonists of the third century. 

. , .-, o. ^_-_ _ a* TKiH nq § Orig. contra Cels. lib. 1. p. 11. 



f Plut. de Isid. & Osir. p. 354. 

J Ibid. p. 373, 374,375 

Secondly, his Power. 

The Sire of Gods his awful silence broke, 
The heav'ns attentive trembled as he spoke 
" Celestial states, immortal Gods! give ear, 
Hear our decree, and rev'rence what ye hear, 
The fix'd decree which not all heav'n can move, 
Thou fate! fulfil it; and ye pow'rs approve! 
Let him who doubts me, dread the dire abodes; 
And know th' Almighty is the God of Gods. 
League all your forces then, ye pow'rs above, 
Join all, and try the omnipotence of Jove: 
Let down a golden everlasting chain, 
Whose strong embrace holds heav'n, and earth, and main: 
Strive all, of mortal and immortal birth, 
To drag, by this, the Thund'rer down to earth: 
Ye strive in vain! If I but stretch this hand, 
I heave the Gods, the Ocean, and the Land; 
I fix the chain to great Olympus' height, 
And the vast world hangs trembling in my sight! 
For such I reign, unbounded and above; 
And such are men, and Gods, compar'd to Jove." 

Th* Almighty spoke, nor durst the Pow'rs reply, 
A rev' rend horror silenc'd all the sky; 
Trembling they stood before the sovereign's look; 
At length his best-belov'd, the pow'r of Wisdom spoke. 

" Oh first and greatest! God by Gods ador'd! 
We own thy might, our father and our Lord!" 

11. Book VIII. 1. 5. 

From the Greeks let us go to the Romans. 

« O " savs Horace " pursuant to the custom of our ancestors, let us celebrate first the great Jove, who rules over Gods and men, 

u muse, y ^ ^^ universe . there i s nothing greater than him, nothing that is like, nothing that is equal to him!"* 
tJmm «L from the voets to the philosophers, and begin with Th ales the Milesian, chief of the Ionic school.f who lived above six 
A A b f the birth of Christ We have none of his works now left: but we have some of his sayings, which have been trans- 

mitted do^to e us r by the most venerable writers of antiquity. « God is the most ancient of all beings: he is the author of the universe, 
V h ', f ,11 of wonders-* he is the Mind which brought the chaos out of confusion into order ;§ he is without beginning and without ending, 
anTnothing is hid from him;,, nothing can resist the force of Fate; but this Fate is nothing but the immutable reason and eternal power of 

Pr °PTTH C A e ^RAS is the second great philosopher, and chief of the Italic school. These are the notions of the Deity which he entertained, 
■"rod Tnot the obiect of any of our senses, but invisible, purely intelligible, and supremely mtelligent. His spirit is truth, his 
• t 1 U 4 1 He is the universal Spirit that pervades and diffuseth itself over all nature. All beings receive their life from him. 
+1 There'is but on7 only God. He is the sole Principle, the Light of heaven, the Father of all; he produces every thing, he orders and 
disposes every thing; he is the reason, the life, and the motion of all beings.§§ 

disposes every ming, ^ ^^ for disbelieving in t he Gods. He was, however, no atheist, for Zenophon has given us an excellent 

Socrates was con emn ^ ^ ^ ^ we haye of antiquity It contains the conversat i on 

abridgment of the Theology of tha * J™^ 6 the existence of a God. Socrates makes him at first take notice of all the characters of 

of Socrates w ,t J A ZZirZt^To" ^\^ and particularly in the mechanism of the human body. , Do you believe,",,,, 

g he IZitfjovtZ's canyon believe, that you are the only intelligent being? You know that you possess but a little particle of 
says he then to Aristodemus can y y ^.^ ^ q{ ^ ^ which ^.^ . { fc under _ 

that matter which composes the worid, .* small port on _ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

t:^: sseSS s-t .«*- wh at y 0U ,Lr a t « d ^. m. ^ . ^ he ^ « ^^ 

work every tmng ^ ^ ^^ him . „ Neither do you see the soul which governs your own body, and regulates all its motions. 

Architect or me • yourself with design and reason, as maintain that every thing is done by blind chance in the 

e- " "^"^^^-owlejji a supreme Bei is still in doubt as to Providence; - not being able to comprehend how 
universe. Aristodemus g > * „ J( fae ^ that re9idcs in ur bod moves and disposes it at lts pleasure, why 

tbe Wty««emy tlu^^^Soc^^P . P to regula te and order every thing as it pleases? If your 

should not that sovereign ^W om ^fj ^ &hoM „ ot the eye of God be abIe to see every thing at once! If your soul can 

eye can see objects at the distance ot se * ' . g.^ wh should not the divine Mind be able to take care of every thing, 

think at the same time upon what is at Athens, ,*L gy£. ^ ^j ^ y^ ^ ^ ^^^ m ^ ^ sQ much from ^ 

2S^tTCSS5 SSU concludes with these words: - O Ar:stodemus! apply yourself sincerely to cultivate knowledge, 

your mind will be enlarged, ^^^J^^^Tt lived about the hundredth Olympiad, at a time when the doctrine of 
Plato, a disciple o ocrat ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Theo)ogy . g tQ giye us „ oble sentiments of tbe Deity, to shew us 

Democritus had made i great ? J, ^ order to .^ fauUs they bad committed in a pre -existent state; and, in fine,. to 

that souls were condemned to animate «« ^ ^ ^ ^ glory and perfection . He despises aU the tenets of the Athenian superstition, and 
teach that social love is the only _way ^ philosopher is man in his immortal capacity; he speaks of him in his politic 

endeavours to purge : religion of them 1« > : } ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^^ ^^ and ^.^ ^ from ^ pure ^ rf ^^ 

one, only to shew that the ; shorter , y ' the Bei which u eternal> and bei which bave been made ^ % And in 

JZZ'Z Xirile'define: Z Uhe effiS cause which makes men exist that had no being before:' a definition which shews that he 

* B. 1. Ode 12. 

|| S.Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 
^+ Lact. Inst. lib. 5. 

tDiog. Laert. vita Thai. lib. 1. § Cicer. de Nat. Deor. lib. 1. p. 1113. Edit. Amst. lG6l. 

t Hot. viymp. ^ ^ ^ g ## p]ut Vjta Num and D . og ^^ Hb 12 ++ Vit pyth Porphvrt 

U S Just. Cohort. 1. ad. Grae. p. 18. 1111 Xen. Mem. Soe. Ed. Basil. 1579. lib 1. p. 573. 

H T/ to' iv \Uv aiei, yevew Si ovKsyw xa ' rt ro ' 7 liV ^ 6 '' oy f" v » 9" y Jg ouJ^ore. 

had an idea of creation. Nor is it at all surprising that he should have this idea, since it implies no contradiction. In reality, when God 
creates, he does not draw a being out of nothing, nor out of matter upon which he works; but he makes something exist which did not exist 
before. The idea of infinite Power necessarily supposes that of being able to produce new substances as well as new forms. To make a 
substance exist, which did not exist before, has nothing in it more inconceivable than the making a form exist which was not before- for in 
both cases there is a new reality produced; and whatever difficulties there are in conceiving the passage from nothing to being, they are as 
puzzling in the one as the other. As therefore it cannot be denied but that there is a moving power, though we do not conceive how it acts; 
so neither must we deny that there is a creating power, because we have not a clear idea of it. 

To return to Plato. He first considers the Deity in his eternal beatitude before the production of finite beings. He says frequently, like 
the Egyptians, ' That this first source the Deity is surrounded with brightness, which no mortal eye can bear, and that this inaccessible 
God is to be adored only by silence.' (Thus our poet Thomson. ' But I lose myself in him, in light ineffable: come then expres- 
sive silence, muse His praise!') It is this first principle which he calls in several places the Being, the Unity, and the supreme Good;* 
the same m the intelligent world, that the sun is in the visible world. He afterwards represents to us this first Being as sallying out of his 
Unity to consider all the various manners by which he might represent himself exteriorly; and thus the ideal world, comprehending the 
ideas of all thmgs, and the forms which result thence, was in the divine understanding. Plato also distinguishes between the supreme 
Good, and that Wisdom which is only an emanation from him. ' That which presents truth to the mind,' says he, • and that which gives us 
reason, is the supreme Good. He is the cause and source of wisdom. { He hath begotten it like himself. As the light is not the sun, but an 
emanation from ,t; so truth is not the first Principle, but his emanation.' And this is what he calls the Wisdom or the Logos. And lastly 
he considers the first Mover displaying his power to form real beings, resembling those archetypal ideas. He stiles him ' 5 The Energy or 
sovereign Architect who created the universe and the Gods, and who does whatsoever he pleases in heaven, on the earth, and in the shades 
below. He calls h.m likewise, < Psyche, or the soul which pervades over the world, rather than the soul of the world;' to denote that this 
soul does not make a part of the universe, but animates it, and gives it all its forms and movements. Sometimes he considers the three divine 
attributes as three causes, at other times as three beings, and often as three Gods: but he affirms that they are all but one sole Divinity that 
there is no difference between them; that the second is the resemblance of the first, and the third of the second; that they are not 
three Gods, but one: and that they differ only as the sun, the rays, and the light.|| 

In other places, and especially in the Locrus,1[ Plato speaks of three other Principles, which he calls, iSU, 'rx* A„V*. By 
the firs he understands the archetypal ideas contained in the divine Intellect: by the second, a primary matter, uniform, sluggish, inerj 
without figure or division but capable of receiving all forms and motions: by the third, the visible universe, bounded, corruptible consisting 
of various parts; and this he stiles the son, the effect, and the work of the idea as the primitive father, and of the »W, as the universal mother 
of whatever exists. We ought never to confound these three principles of nature with the three forms of the Divinity, which he calls 
Agathos, Logos, and Psjche; the sovereign Good, which is the principle of Deity, the Intellect which drew the plan of the world and 
the Energy which executed it. r ' 

Aristotle, Plato's disciple, and chief of the Peripatetic Philosophers, calls God ** < The eternal and self-existing Being, the most noble 
of all things, a spirit entirely distinct from matter, without extension, without division, without parts, and without succession; who under- 
stands every thing by one single act, and continuing himself immoveable, gives motion to all things, and enjoys in himself a perfect happiness 
as knowing and contemplating himself with infinite satisfaction.' In his metaphysics he lays it down for a principlc+t « That God is a 
supreme Intelligence which acts with order, proportion, and design; and is the source of all that is good, excellent, and just.' In his treatise 
of the soul, he says, 'That the supreme Mind JJ is by its nature prior to all beings, that he has a sovereign dominion over all.' And in other 
places he says, §§ • That the first Principle is neither the fire, nor the earth, nor the water, nor any thing that is the object of sense; but that 
a spiritual substance is the cause of the universe, and the source of all the order and all the beauties, as well as of all the motions and all the 
forms which we so much admire in it.' 

C. ceko, when in the height of argument, forget the popular creed, and gave loose to his own sentiment, and thus speaks of God. 
J According to the opinion of the mto* and greatest men, says this Philosopher, the law is not an invention of human understanding, 
or the arbitrary constitution, of men but flow, from the eternal Reason that governs the universe. The rape which Tarqu.n committed upon 
LucRETiA, continues he was not less criminal in its nature, because there was not at that time any written law at Rome against such sort 
ot violences. The tyrant was guilty of a breach of the eternal law, the obligation whereof did not commence from the time it was written 
bu from the time it was made. Now Us origin is as ancient as the divine Intellect: for the true, the primitive, and the supreme law i 
nothing but the sovereign reason of the great Jove. This law, says he in another place.f f is universal, eternal, immutable. It does not 
vary according to times and places. It is not different now from what it was formerly. The same immortal law is a rule to all nations, 
because it has no author but the one only God who brought it forth and promulged it.' 

St. Paul, when at Athens, mentions that there was a statue, with an inscription, denoting it to be the unknown God 
To come at last to Seneca the Stoic He was Nero's tutor, and lived in an age when Christianity was not in credit enough to engage 
fit XT™ H ITT any R phll0S0 P hlCal P" nCI l> les fr ° m thence ' *t < It is of very little consequence,' says he, • by what name you calf the 
first Nature and the divine Reason that presides over the universe, and fills all the parts of it. He is still the same God. He is called Jupiter 

T'hTmrc J! 8 " 1810 ™" 8 7* b< T e h ! St ? Ped thC R ° man armiCS aS ^ Were fl ^»& but ***»* ** * the constant support of all beings" 
Ihey may call him Fate, because he is the first cause on which all others depend. We Stoics call him sometimes Father Bacchus, because 

and' WiIdom VerS Y f^HT "ST HERCULES ' ***** ** ^ " ™ b,e: Me — > because ^ « the eternal Reason, Order! 

and Wisdom. You may give h.m as many names as you please, provided you allow but one sole Principle every where present.' 

That the Greeks and Romans had a knowledge of God is certain. Jup.ter is, according to their philosophers, the soul of the world who 
akes different names, to the different effects which he produces. In the ethereal spaces he is called Jup.ter, in the aiTjuNo in 
the sea Neptune, in the earth Pluto, ,n hell, in the element of fire Vulcan, in the sun Phcebus, in divination Apollo n 
war Mars, m the vintage Bacchus, ,n the harvest Ceres, in the forest D.ana, and in the sciences Mi nerva. All that crowd of Gou^'a d 
Goddesses are only the same Jup.ter, whose different powers and attributes are expressed by different names. It is therefore eviden by 
the testimony of prophane poets, Heathen philosophers, and fathers of the church, that the Pagans acknowledge one sole supreme Ddty 
1 he Orientals, the Egyptians, the Greeks, the Romans, all were agreed universally in allowing thfs sublime truth 7 ' 

But can we : believe, that several gods were not the objects of popular worship, and that the common people had a knowledge of the one 
only God> Did they see hrough the veil which concealed the omnipotent, and only Being? Did the/not worship the crefture for the 
Creator a multitude of a legoric, and ideal, unexisting, Beings, instead of the former of the Universe, the Lord of All !! Vide the Travels of 
Cyrus, by Ramsay, and Abbe Pluche's origin of the Heathen Religion, in his Histoire du ciel considere selon les idees des Poetes &c 


*n«^»,..«W,>«^.r« 1 }fc«p,,,»« ( ^ Plat. Sophist, p 185 Ed Franc 160° 

fDeRepub lib. G. page 686 , De Repub. lib. 6. p. 687. Mm «,W ^ ^ ^ W, ™ ^ S>y0TO „ ^ .^ ,,,„ ^ 

§ Plat de Repub. lib. 10. p. 749. A,po W cV and not V>W»' pw, ^ fefxo^, and not f >,W » Sce C „d„or,h \L\\J, s , Z. 

1 Tim. Loe. p. .080. .. Arist. Ed. Paris 1629. Metaph. lib. xiv. eap. 7. p. .000. ++ Me*ph ib. xiv. eap. ,0. p ,£ t ^ e An nf 1 b i * ^ « 

^Me,pb.,ib...eap. 2 . &3 .p.844,84 5 . ||» Cie. de Leg lib., p. , W . „ P Frag . of the Repnb^ieero pressed b ^^bi^c. 8 ^ 

*t beoec. Ldit. Ant. a Lipsio 1632. de Benef. lib. iv. p. 31 1. 

|| Haste, 


Whilst the common people of all the nations of the earth adored the gods of their own fancy, or as taught them by their priests, the 
Jews alone worshipped the true Jehovah, the Lord God Almighty. 


This made a fit preparation for the coming of the Messiah, foretold by the prophets among the Jews, wonderfully accomplished by the 
appearance of Christ, one of the Persons of the Trinity, who atoned for the sins of the world, and gave to astonished and delighted 
mortals the most clear and ocular proofs of the resurrection of the body. 

[| fHaste, holy Brahmins! light the blaze. J In the World Displayed, being a collection of voyages, there is the following account of 
this mournful tragedy, which so shocks the feelings of humanity. " A young woman of rank, extremely beautiful, lost her husband before 
she had reached twenty years of age. She resolved to follow the custom of her country, and be burnt with him. We saw her," says the 
traveller, " arrive at the place with extraordinary fortitude, and seemingly with a degree of gaiety ill-suited to the melancholy occasion. At 
the head of the retinue, which accompanied her, was a band of the country music, composed of hautboys and kettle-drums. After them 
followed several married women and virgins, singing and dancing before the widow, who walked by herself, dressed in her richest clothes, 
her head decorated with flowers, and her neck, fingers, arms, and legs, loaded with rich jewels and bracelets. A troop of men, women, and 
children, led the rear, and closed the procession. The funeral pile was previously made ready of bamboo covered with branches of sandal and 
cinnamon. She approached it with an air of contempt, and without being disturbed. She first took leave of her relations and friends, and 
distributed among them her ornaments. I kept myself near her. Judging from the expression of my countenance, that I was sorry for her, 
she approached me, and gave me as a present her bracelets. When she had seated herself upon the pile, with the same undaunted resolution 
she poured on her head a sweet-smelling oil, which was a signal for the priests to kindle the fire, and the assistants throwing in several cruises 
of oil, to increase the flames, and the whole assembly now joining in loud cries, which filled the air, she was consumed, apparently, without 
a struggle." Vol. VIII. p. 66. 

" The person whom I saw," says Hodges, (vide his Travels through India, p. 50.) " was of the Bhyse (merchant) tribe or cast; a class of 
people exempt from the high and impetuous pride of rank, and in whom the natural desire of preserving life, and avoiding the torture of 
untimely death, must be undiverted from the desire of posthumous renown. I may add, that these motives are greatly strengthened by the 
exemption of this class from the infamy, which the refusal is inevitably branded with in their superiors. But it is religion, which inspires, 
and they are taught by their priests, that they immediately from this sacrifice go with their husbands to realms of ecstatic bliss, where they 
are to enjoy the most lasting happiness. Upon my repairing to the spot, on the banks of the river, where the ceremony was to take place, 
I found the body of a man on a bier, and covered with linen, already brought down and laid at the edge of the sacred river. About ten in 
the morning the widow appeared, attended by the Brahmins (the priests) accompanied with music, and some of her relations and friends. 
The procession was slow and solemn. The victim moved with a steady and firm step; and apparently with a perfect composure of coun- 
tenance, and approached close to the body of her husband, where for some time they halted. She then addressed those who were near her 
with composure, and without the least faltering of tongue, or change of countenance." (" Mr. Howell mentions an instance, where one of these 
devoted victims, upon being told by the English, that the pains she was about to suffer were more than human nature could endure, with a 
view to divert her intention, immediately put her finger into the flaming torch, and then asked them, " if they saw her countenance to be 
moved.") " The person, whose death I witnessed, held in her hand an hollow cocoa-nut, in which was a red kind of paint, and dipping in it 
the fore-finger of her right hand, she marked those near her to whom she wished to display this sign of her attention. As at this time I 
stood near her, she looked at me with a fixed countenance, and must have read in it the sympathy I bore, and she graciously also marked 
me on the forehead. She was young and beautiful; her figure was small, and elegantly shaped, and her hands and arms were particularly 
fashioned; her dress was a loose robe of white flowing drapery, that extended from her head to her feet. The place of sacrifice was an 
hundred yards from where we stood. The funeral pile was composed of dried branches, leaves, and canes, hollow within, and covered at 
the top with branches; and by the doorway stood a man with a lighted torch. From the time the devoted appeared, to the taking up of the 
body, to place it on the pile, might occupy the space of half an hour, which was employed in conversation with her relations and friends, and 
latterly in prayer with the Brahmins. When the body was first taken up, she followed close to it, attended by the head Brahmin; and her 
husband being deposited on the pile, she turned back, and took her final leave of the assembly, and then entered alive the tomb, which in 
an instant after was all in flames, amidst the shouts of an immense multitude, who appeared rejoicing, at what made all my blood run cold, 
and impressed on my mind a melancholy reflection which never can be erased." 

" It may be worth w r hile here to consider for a moment the instigations which could lead to such horrid superstition. Unaided reason 
points out the probationary state of man. To bear and suffer is the highest degree of virtue. Believing in the soul's immortality, the priests 
have taught, that it migrates into different bodies, and has its punishments as purifications, obtaining proportionate rewards. In the hopes of 
expiating all sins by an adequate voluntary penance, the Hindoo performs acts which make human nature shudder and human reason stagger. 
The rewards in another world are said to be distributed into fourteen spheres, six above, and seven below this earth. The earth is one, and 
is called Bhoor. The Swergeh is the first heaven, or receptacle, for persons possessing ordinary virtues. The second they call Mahurr, 
destined for the Fakeers who have become virtuous here, and such as by dint of extreme sufferings and prayer have acquired an extraordinary 
degree of sanctity. The third is Junneh, for those of uncommon merit during their whole lives. Tuppeh, for those who have died martyrs 
for religion. The Suttee, or highest heaven, is the residence of Brahma, and his particular favourites. This is the place for the most 
virtuous throughout life, and for those widows who have voluntarily burnt themselves with their husbands. The infernal regions are also 
seven, inhabited by an infinite variety of snakes, wild beasts, and horrible figures. According to the Shaster, or religious book of the 
Hindoos, it is ordained, < that the wife ought to burn herself;* and should she not possess the resolution to sustain this trial, she is directed 
" to make a pilgrimage to some of the sacred places of Hindoo oblation, as Benares, Allahabad, Ghyah, &c. and there appropriating all 
her property to charitable uses, offer up the sacrifice of her hair to the memory of her husband. Afterwards she is not to ornament her person, 
or eat any thing else but barley or wheaten bread, and that only once a day. Her time is to be employed in prayer, and she is to withdraw 
from all commerce with the world." Sooner than suffer this degradation, or for the hope of a heavenly reward, the Hindoo women volun- 
tarily submit to be burnt. Hence thousands (the report is) 25 to 30,000 of Indian widows are seen yearly devoting themselves in the prime of 
life to a cruel death!" 

I • .-.^IXI -PH 

■ *v 


/•/> . ). /,//■/.) .if//y/ 





In hot climates, where water is the best boon of Heaven, flourish the several kinds of Nym- 
phaeas. These present the purest colours, and are of an azure blue, or blushing red, or pale 
yellow, the three primary colours, and also of a dazzling white, all which majestically, (different 
from our humble aquatics), rise with their foliage above the surface of the flood, and present 
their luxuriant leaves to the vaulted heavens. Nature, as if designing these plants to be the 
masterpiece of her creative power, besides superior grace and beauty, has also added utility; 
for the seed-vessels contain nourishing food for man, as also the roots, which produce, as will be 
hereafter shewn, the profitable potatoe. As the Egyptians worshipped whatever was useful, 
they accounted these plants sacred ; in their feasts they crowned themselves with the flowers, 
and their altars are decorated with the same. The Egyptian Ceres has the seed-vessel of the 
blue lotos in her hand, which the Romans corrupted into the poppy; and sometimes also that 
of the Nelumbo, which the Greeks mistook for the horn of Amalthea. The subject of this 
narrative, however, relates wholly to the Nymphaea Nelumbo, which some modern naturalists, 
instead of reckoning as aNymphaga, have formed it into a distinct genus ; for its calyx, instead 
of being large, consists of four narrow leaves, and the corolla is more multiplied than in the 
other water-lilies, and, wholly unlike other nymphasas, it has stamina with anthers, on long and 
slender filaments, and its seed-vessel, like an inverted cone, is flat at the top, and pierced with 
hollows, like an honey-comb, for the reception of its beans, or seeds. 

The following Eastern Hymn transfused into the English tongue by Sir William Jones, gives 
us the antiquity of the flower of the Nelumbium, as received among the Asiatics: 


Spirit of spirits, who, through every part . 
Of space expanded and of endless time, 
Beyond the stretch of lab'ring thought sublime, 
Bade uproar into beauteous order start, 

Before heaven was, thou art: 
Ere spheres beneath us rolled, or spheres above, 
Ere earth in firmamental ether hung, 
Thou sat'st alone; till, through thy mystic love, 
Things unexisting to existence sprung,* 

And grateful descant sung. 

* The mythology of the Hindoos referred all to one primitive God. 

What first impell'd thee to exert thy might? 
Goodness* unlimited.— What glorious light 
Thy power directed? Wisdom without bound. — 
What proved it first? Oh! guide my fancy right; 
Oh! raise from cumbrous ground, 
My soul in rapture drowned, 
That fearless it may soar on wings of fire; 
For thou, who only know'st, thou only canst inspire. 

First an all-potent, all-pervading sound 
Bade flow the waters^- — and the waters flowed, 
Exulting in their measureless abode, 
Diffusive, multitudinous, profound, 
Above, beneath, around. 


Then o'er the vast expanse, primordial wind% 
Breathed gently till a lucid bubble rose, 
Which grew in perfect shape an Egg§ refined; 
Created substance no such lustre shews, 

Earth no such beauty knows. 
Above the warring waves it danced elate, 
Till from its bursting shell, with lovely state, 
A form cerulean fluttered o'er the deep, 
Brightest of beings, greatest of the great, 

Who not as mortals steep 

Their eyes in dewy sleep, 

* They rose to that sublime conception, God is Love. 

f From chaos the flux of water is the first action or energy. 

+ The next creation by the Deity is the wind. " And the Spirit of God moved on the face of the deep." Moses. 

§ Thus the Greeks, but with less grandeur, represent their Cupid as coming out of the great Egg of Night, which floated in 
Chaos and was broken by the horns of the celestial Bull. He is represented winged, and by his arms and torch pierced and vivified 
all things, producing every where life and joy. This Cupid is called Eros, or Divine Love. " At this time," says Aristophanes, 
" sable-winged Night produced an Egg, from whence sprung up, like a blossom, Eros, the lovely, the desirable, with his glossy 
golden wings." 

Thus when the Egg of Night, on Chaos hurl'd, 
Burst, and disclosed the cradle of the world ; 
First from the gaping shell refulgent sprung 
Immortal Love, his bow celestial strung; — 
O'er the wide waste his gaudy wings unfold, 
Beam his soft smiles, and wave his curls of gold ; — 
With silver darts he pierced the kindling frame 
And lit with torch divine the ever-living flame." 




But, pensive, on the lotos-leaf* he lay, 
Which blossomed at his touch, and shed a golden ray.f 
Hail primal blossom! hail empyreal gem! — 
Kemel or Pedma, or whate'er high name 
Delight thee, say what powerful Godhead came, 
With graceful stole, and beamy diadem, 
Forth from the verdant stem? — 

Full-gifted Brahma, — Rapt in solemn thought, 
He stood, and round his eyes fire-darting threw: 
But, whilst his viewless origin he sought, 
One plain he saw of living waters, blue, 
Their spring, nor sum, he knew. 

Then, in th' expanded leaf again retired, 
With restless thought, for hours he inquired 
What were his powers, by whom, and why conferred: 
With doubts perplexed, with keen impatience fired, 
He rose, — and rising, heard 
Th' unknown, all-knowing word — 
" Brahma! no more in vain research persist : 
" My veil thou canst not move. Go, bid all forms exist"\ 

* Did the appearance of water naturally suggest without creation a Nelumbium, or lotos, in it? The leaf is large and hollow, in shape 
like an umbrella inverted by the wind, and as if fashioned for the reception of a God. 

f The first action of Brahma, was the creation of the flower of the Nelumbium. Sir William Jones uses, perhaps, the word golden 
for beautiful. Is the yellow Nelumbium a native of any other climate than America ? With a painter's licence, I have introduced the white, 
red, and yellow together, and placed them all in Egypt, which occasioned the following beautiful impromptu lines to be returned me 
upon presenting the first impression from the above plate to a charming poet. 


Fair offspring of benignant Nile 

Watering old Egypt's fertile plains, 
Where cloudless skies diffuse their smile 

O'er long lost glory's rude remains; 

Here, nursed amid fictitious waves, 

Its head thy sacred blossom rears ; 
While, smiling by thy kindred side, 

Nelumbia's rosy form appears. 

And, wafted o'er th' Atlantic main, 
From far Columbia's purling streams, 

Thy younger sister joins the train, 
And, bright in golden beauty, gleams. 

But say ; could painting's magic power 
Catch these bright tints of nature's loom ? 

Did Nile or Ganges rear the flower, — 
Or Thornton bid its beauties bloom? 



+ By his own energies, and the creation of things, he would rise to comprehend somewhat of the King of Kings, the God of Gods, 
the Invisible Being, by, and in whom, are all things. 

Then Brahma his own mind surveyed, 
Ere spirits were infused, ox forms displayed. 
As mortal eyes, if finite we compare 
With infinite, in brightest mirrors gaze, 
Swift, as is thought*, a shape supremely fair 
Rose into being, with a boundless blaze 

That fifty suns might daze. 
Primeval Maya was the Goddess named, 
Who, to her lord with love divine fa inflamed, 
Her thoughts divulged, with richest wisdom filled, 
From which this gorgeous universe he framed ; 

For when great Brahme willed 

Unnumbered worlds to build 
From unity diversified^ he sprang, 
Then gay Creation laughed, and procreant Nature rang. 

Omniscient spirit! whose all-ruling power 
Bids from each sense bright emanations § beam; 
Glows in the rainbow; sparkles in the stream || ; 
Smiles in the bud * ; and glistens in the flower 

That crowns each vernal bower ; 
Sighs in the gale ; and warbles in the throat 
Of every bird that hails the blooming spring, 
Or tells his loves in many a liquid note, 
Whilst envious artists touch the rival string, 

Till rocks and forests ring; 
Breathes in rich fragrance from the sandal-grove, 
Or where the precious musk-deer, playful, rove; 
In dulcet juice from clustering fruit distils; 
And burns salubrious in the tasteful clove; 
Soft banks and verdurous hills 
Thy present influence fills; 
In air, in floods, in caverns, woods, and plains, 
Thy will inspirits all, thy sovereign Maya f reigns. 



* A fine conception of the first operation of the heavenly mind. 

+ BRAHME is believed by the Hindoos to be neuter, Brahma and Mai a are masculine and feminine. 
J Still all is referred to God, or Brahme. 
§ In sluggish matter there is no thought. 
|| Not properties existent in matter. 

* Smiles in the bud! how enchanting the whole account! 

f Ma i a (the Minerva of the Greeks, who is said by them to have been born from the head of Jupiter), means sovereign goodness and 
wisdom. The Hindoos believe also in an evil spirit which wars against the innocent joys of life, and produces the miseries incident to huma- 
nity, and all the convulsions of nature, and Brahma is employed, sometimes appearing upon earth, to counteract this evil. There 
is a fine Hindoo Avatar, or descent of Brahma, representing the deluge, when Brahma appears in the shape of a fish, and having 
procured from the body of Typhon, the holy books, presents them to Brahme. 

On the Nelumbium, as related to Egypt, I have been favoured with the following lines from a 
well known poet, almost equally distinguished as the last for his deep mythological acquaintance 
with the ancient and modern eastern world. 

Emblem sublime of that primordial pow'r,* 
That on the vast abyss of chaos mov'd, 

What pen shall paint thy charms, majestic flow'r! 
By mortals honour'd and by gods belov'd I 

From Ethiopia's lofty mountains roll'd, 
Where Nile's proud stream through gladden'd Egypt pours,f 

J 2 e T S f lt °! G ° d } !?*&*?.** ChaOS ' and animating ^^ IS menti ° ned by M ° SeS; and in the E ^P tian and Hindoo cosmo- 
gony the Lotos is an emblem of that circumstance. 

f The Nelumbium, Faba iEgyptica, or Sacred Egyptian Bean, is not to be met with at present in Egypt. That it was an inhabitant 
there we earn from the = following particular : « Alexander, when he reached," says his historian Arrian, « the river Indus, believed he had 
discovered a branch or the Nile. This mighty stream was called Indus, from the country it passes through, as the Nile is called ^gyptus by 
Homer, and both originated from the same source; and he was confirmed in this from finding crocodile, in the stream of the Indued beans 
growing on its banks similar to those which grew on the shores of the Nile." Arrian, lib. 6. cap. 1. We have also other proofs 

Parkinson , who published in 1640, gives us the following account, p. 375. « The Beane of Egypt, which some call the Beane of Pontus 
saith Dioscondes (but Theophrastus mentioneth neither Egypt nor Pontus, but only calleth it a beane) groweth in lakes and standi waters 
(plentifully m Egypt saith Dioscondes, which Theophrastus speaketh not of) in Asia, that is in Syria and Cilicia, but there saith Theophras 
tus, it doth hardly perfect its fruite, but about Torona, in the lake, in the country of Calcidicum, it cometh to perfection' and bcareth very 
large leaves (like those of the butter-burre, saith Dioscorides) ; the stalke, saith Dioscorides, is a cubite long; Theophrastus saith the longest 
is foure cubits high, of the bigness of ones finger, like unto a soft reede, but without joynts : it beareth a flower twice as large as that ofthe 
poppy (with double flowers, for so I interpret in plenum caput, the words of Theophrastus), of the colour of the rose ; after which is past cometh 
a round head called ciborion, or cibottion, that is, a small caske (yet Atheneeus saith that a kinde of drinking cup was so called also whose 
forme peradventure was like this fruite here expressed), not unlike to the comb which waspes do make, wherein is contained thirty cells at 
the most, and in every cell or division thereof groweth a beane, whose toppe riseth higher than the cell wherein it is enclosed, whose kernell 
is bitter; which say they, the inhabitants thereabouts put into clay, and thrust downe to the bottome ofthe water, with W poles that it 
may abide therein and thereby make their increase: the roote is very thicke and great, like unto that of the reede, but (Theophrastus add- 
eth, which Dioscorides hath not) full of cruell prickes or thornes, and therefore saith he, the crocodile refuses to come near it, least he should 
runne against the prickes thereof with his eyes, wherewith he cannot see well, and is called colocasia as Dioscorides maketh mention but not 
Theophrastus, which is used to be eaten either raw or otherwayes dressed, that is sodden or roasted. The beanes, saith Dioscorides are eaten 
while they are fresh and greene, but grow hard and blacke when they arc old, being somewhat bigger than an ordinary beane, which saith 
Dioscorides (Theophrastus making no mention of any qualities or virtues of them), have an astringent or binding faculty, and'thereby pro- 
fitable to the stomacke, and helpeth those that have the fluxe of the stomacke and the belly, and the bloody fluxe, the meale or flower of 
them strawed upon meate, &c. or taken in broth: the husks whereof, saith he, doth more good, being boyled in sweete wine, the middle 
part ofthe beane, which is greene and bitter, being bruised and boyled in rosewater, and dropped into the eares, easeth the paines of them 
Thus farre Theophrastus and Dioscorides. Now the description of Clusius his strange fruite is thus, as he setteth it downe: This finite did 
resemble a very large poppy head, cut oflf at the toppe, and consisted of a rough or wrinkled skinny substance, of a brownish colour some- 
what light, whose circumference at the top was nine inches, and growing lesser and lesser by degrees unto the stalkes, which as it seemed 
did sustaine the flower, after which came this fruite, for there appeared certaine markes of the flower, where it did abide ; the upper part 
hereof was smooth and plaine, having twenty-four holes or cells therein, placed in a certaine order, like unto the combe of waspes; in every 
one whereof was one nut, like unto a small akorne, almost an inch long, and an inche thicke in compasse, whose toppe was brown'e, ending 
in a point, like as an akorne doth, the lower part having an hole or hollow place, where it should seeme the footstalke upheld it, while it was 
in its place, whose kernell was rancid or mouldy; thus farre Clusius. Let me here also bring in an eye witness or two, of this plant's grow- 
ing in the ile of Java, Dr. Justus Heurnius, both divine and physition for the Dutch factory in the kingdome or ile of Java, sent into Hol- 
land a small booke or collection of certaine herbes, &c. growing in that country, with the virtues and uses, whereunto the naturals did apply 
them (which booke, as I understand by my good friends, Dr. Daniel Heringhooke, and Dr. William Parkins, both English, is kept in the 
university library at Leyden, in a close cupbord, having a glasse window before it, through which any one may reade so much thereof as 
lyeth open), at the end whereof is one by him set downe, under the name of Nymphcea glandifera, thus described: the huske or cup (saith he) 
is rugged or full of wrinkles, yet soft, loose and spungye, like a musroome, and of a greene colour, divided into twelve or fourteen cells (Clu- 
sius his figure hath twenty-four) or places, in every one whereof is contained one fruite like unto an akorne, of a blackish purple colour on 
the outside, and very white within, the taste whereof is astringent, and somewhat bitter withal, like akornes, but rough and spongie; it grow- 
eth in moorish places, and by river's banckes: the leaves are wondrous great, and like unto those ofthe water lilly, and so is the flower also 
of a very strong smell, like unto the oyle of aniseedes. thus farre Dr. Heurnius, whose description in my judgment is so punctuall to those 
of Dioscorides and Theophrastus aforesaid, the description of the roote onely wanting, that I shall not neede further to comment upon it, 
every ones judgment, though meane, I suppose being able by comparing to agree in the parts. It is probable that Clusius, having seene this' 
booke and the figure hereof annexed to the description, might soone pronounce it (as I doe here) to be the true Faba JEgyptica of the ancients: 
there is no mention made in that booke of Heurnius by what name the Javaneses or Malayos doe call it. The other eye witnesse hereof is 
Mr. William Fincham, an English merchant, as he is recorded in Mr. Purchas his fourth booke of Pilgrimes, chap. iv. sect. v. p. 429, that 



In raptur'd strains thy praise was hymn'd of old,* 
And still resounds on Ganges' faithful shores.f 

Within thy fair corolla's full-blown bell X 
Long since th' immortals fix'd their fond abode ; 

There day's bright source, Osiris, § lov'd to dwell, 
While by his side enamour'd Isis glow'd. 

saith he often did eate of the fruite of a certaine herbe growing in a great brooke or lake, two or three courses or miles long, on the north- 
" t "L of FeXot whieh is about twelve eourses from Agra, in the dominions of the great Mogo.l, called Surrat or Guzurrat, m the East 
Tndes which the people call Camolachachery, describing it to be like a goblet, flat at the head, con tarn, ng d.vers nuts or akornes w.thm it. 
I have hire sedowne these things, as well to show you mine owne observations after Clusius and others, that assuredly tins is the true Faha 
WW hi ancients, as to pfovoke some of our nation to be as industrious as the Hollander by whose care m the.r travels tins was first 
fad! £nown t us, to search out such rare fruites as grow in the parts of their abode, and either communicate them to such as are expe- 
rienced or having penned them to publish their labours in print, if it may be, which I hold to be better, according to Mr. Fincham s example, 
whose observations have given so great an illustration in this matter, as well as in other things, by me also remembered elsewhere m this 

W ° r * e pa-anism at first arose from gratitude, and the adoration of this flower, as will be presently shown, proceeded chiefly from this cause. 
Amon. the Egyptians, animals as well as flowers, which were useful, were among the objects of worship Cicero judiciously remarks « that 
no animals were held sacred by the Egyptians, but such as merited regard from their extraordmary uUhty. The same sentiment holds ex- 

actlv with regard to their sacred plants. . 

« jEzvptii nullam belluam, nisi ob aliquam utilitatem quam ex ea caperent, consecrarunt velut Ibes, max.mam vim serpenhum confic.- 
unt cum sint aves excels*, cruribus rigidis, corneo proceroque rostro; avertunt pestem ab iEgypto, cum volucres angues ex vastitate 
vento Africo invectas, interficiunt atque consumunt, ex quo fit ut ill* nee morsu vivae noceant nee odore mortuee; earn ob rem mvocantur ab 

./EevDtiis Ibes." Cic. de Nat. Deor, lib. 1. , . , , ™ . • , j u jj- > u a 

The idols belonging to the aborigines Egyptians were birds, and beasts, and plants, which the Phoenicians altered^ by adding a man s head 
or body, and thence formed those motley deities, commonly considered as the Egyptian deities. Vide Origin of Hieroglyphics and the My- 
thology of the Ancients, by the Bishop ofClogher, p. 14. . ' 

The only objection urged against this opinion, so favourable to the ancient Egyptian superstition, is the worship of the crocodile. The 
inhabitants of Thebes consider the crocodile as a sacred animal. One of these creatures is rendered tame, and attended with the greatest care 
and veneration His food is prescribed and regulated according to the directions in their sacred books. He is adorned with earrings made of 
e old and precious stones, as well as a sort of bracelet upon his fore feet," &c. Herodotus. But it is probable he was worshipped as the great 
Typhon or emblem of destructive power; and it is to be observed, that this superstition was peculiar to Thebes; whereas the Lotos, the 
Ibis, the Ichneumon, the Cow, &c. were held in superstitious veneration in every part of Egypt. ..,._. 

+ When Sir William Jones was at dinner on the borders of the Ganges, some of his people, at his desire, brought him the Nelumbium, 
when all his Indian attendants immediately fell upon their faces, and paid adoration to this plant. 

X The flower of the Nelumbium is bell-shaped, somewhat resembling our Water Lily, and its flowers are in circles, which as these expand 

emit a most agreeable odour. . 

* The ancient Egyptians, like the primitive Persians, worshipped the sun and moon, or rather their deities, whence so many benefits issued 
to mankind We are almost tempted to forgive that superstition which could believe these planets the abodes of a god and a goddess, whom 
they denominated by the names of Osiris and If*; They sometimes quitted their supreme abodes, and came down upon earth and enjoyed 
themselves, by riding on a stately flower above the waters, blown about by the zephyrs; nor can we much wonder at such superstition, since 
we have had our fairies, and Anacreon the Greek poet describes Cupid alike diminutive. 

As late I sought the spangled bowers, 
To cull a wreath of matin flowers, 
Where many an early rose was weeping, 
In one I found the urchin sleeping: 
I caught the boy, a goblet's tide 
Was richly mantling by my side; 
I caught him by his downy wing, 
And whelm'd him in the racy spring. 
Oh! then I drank the poison d bowl, 
And love now nestles in my soul; 
Yes, yes, my soul is Cupid's nest, 
I feel him fluttering in my breast. 


Thus the Roman poet Virgil invokes the sun and moon as deities: 

Vos, O clarissima mundi 
Lumina, labentem coelo qui ducitis annum, 
Liber, et alma Ceres. 

Lvcaon whose wickedness was fabled to have hastened the destruction of the old world, was the father of Callisto. Her charms engaged 
the affections of Jupiter, but his jealous consort having discovered the amour, changed her into a bear, in which shape she is Placed^by 

Hence, not unconscious to his orient beam, 
At dawn's first blush thy shining petals spread ; 

Drink deep th' effulgence of the solar stream, 
And, as he mounts, still brighter glories shed.* 

TVth™ the wife of Oceanus, to withhold from this new constellation the 
Inniter in the sphere. Jnno remaining implacable, prevailed upon Te lys, the 

Thus the blest Gods the genial day prolong 
In feasts ambrosial and celestial song. 
Apollo tun'd the lyre, the Muses round 
With voice alternate aid the silver sound. 
Meantime the radiant sun, to mortal sight 
Descending swift, roll'd down the rapid light. 
Then to their starry domes the Gods depart, 
The shining documents of Vulcan's art: 
Jove on his couch reclin d his awful head, 
And Juno slumber'd on the golden bed. 

Thns Augustus Casar is invoked by Virgil, as one who will become a new constellation. 

And, chiefly thou, whose undelermin'd state 

Is yet the business of the Gods' debate ; 

Whether in after times to be declar'd 

The patron of the world, and Rome's peculiar guard, 

Or o'er the fruits and seasons to preside, 

And the round circuit of the year to guide. 

Pow'rful of blessings, which thou strew'st around, 

And with thy Goddess Mother's myrtle crown d. 

Or wilt thou, Cesar, choose the wat'ry reign, 

To smooth the surges, and correct the mam. 

Then mariners in storms to thee shall pray, 

E'en utmost Thule shall thy pow'r obey; 

And Neptune shall resign the trident of the sea, 

The wat'ry virgins for thy bed shall strive, 

And Tethys all her waves in dowry give; 

Or wilt thou bless our summers with thy rays, 

And seated near the balance, poise the days, 

Where in the void ofheav'n a space is free, 

Betwixt the Scorpion and the Maid, for thee, 

The Scorpion ready to receive thy laws. 

Yields half his region, and contracts his claws. 

Georg. Book I. 

e A t Inmi or predicting the future fortunes of each as in- 

Each separate planet and star had us deity, hence ^_^*^^ g {*b influence to arise from the God or Goddess (abetter 

fluenced by the Sunder which each person was born. ^^J^ corac from inert masses of matter. Thus Milton in com- 

nouon) presiding over each star, the supersuuous ^^Tr^t fall of man, commissioning his Angels to produce several changes 

in nature, ana ^ ^ ^^ mom 

Her office they prescribed, to th' other Jive 

Their planetary motions and aspects 

In sextile, square, and trine, and opposite, 

Of noxious efficacy, and when to join 

In synod unbenign; and taught the fix d 

Their influence malignant when to shower. , ^ 

• u- u- „™ nf nlants " It withdraws its flowers in the evening into the 

* Theophrastus gives the following account of the Nelumb um m h,s hish*y rfpta- ^ ^ rf ^ — rf the hand; after which 

v Kt 6 which continue to descend till midnight, to so great a de P lh ' "^ J and ds its flowers, rising higher and higher, tdl 

STSStSuly again, and in the course of the »g appears f^^ J eM ascent of the Ne.umbium is fully credited 

k several feet in height above the surface." Book iv. chap. 10. This de see 4 ^ fc dipping ^ water hlch 

^SnnTu: and is even applied by him to our "W^te. ^ ; b JP^J morning , which wa8 mis took for the closed 

1^ d^^^ * ^ "" ^ ShUtS " ab ° Ut f ° Ur m eVemng ' 


When, at their noontide height, his fervid rays, 
Tn a bright deluge burst on Cairo's spires, 

With what new lustre then thy beauties blaze, 
Full of the god, and radiant with his fires! 

Brilliant thyself, in stole of dazzling white* 
Thy sister plants more gaudy robes infold; 

This flames in red, and that, intensely bright, 
Amid th' illumin'd waters lurns in gold.f 

To brave the tropic's fiery beam is thine, 
Till in the distant west his splendors fade; 

Then, too, thy beauty and thy fire decline, 
With morn to rise, in lovelier charms array 'd. 

What mystic treasures, in thy form conceal'd, 
Perpetual transport to the sage supply; 

Where nature, in her deep designs reveal'd, 
Awes wondering man, and charms th' exploring eye. 

In thy prolific vase, and fertile seeds, 

Are trac'd her grand regenerative pow'rs ;| 

Life, springing warm, from loath'd putrescence, breeds, 
And lovelier germs shoot forth, and brighter flow'rs.' 

Thus, from Arabia borne, on golden wings, 
The Phoenix on the Sun's bright altar dies ; § 

But from his flaming bed, refulgent, springs, 

And cleaves, with bolder plume, the sapphire skies. 

* The subject of this poem is the white Nelumbium which T <™ ;„ «■«, a , ^ 

Cowley says of the white lily, it seemed elothed in %T " " *" *"" " Ule R °^ S ardens at *ew »-* August. The same 

•f- There are three varieties of this plant, or if we rnnsHhitP \t witk t„o D :~. 
Ufa* or if we make it, with LinnaL, of the genu CpLa ^ZZe^ZT^ ^ * ^l*""* * the te ™ *- 
4ft ^ The leaves are in the shape, Ld of L^^^^^T^^S f^^T^ *~ "* 

maturity, decay, aud again shoot forth; for, the orifices of these cells banTto^Z^rT" " I " *** ^ ■"* 8™ to 
in the places where they are formed, the bulb of the vessel serving as a £toTl££ them nZ^' *T ^ — **"* S™ te 
tude as to burst it open and release themselves; after which, like other aquatic weed, TJv, t I ^^ SUCh a de S ree of ™S™- 

This plant, therefore, being thus productive ofit se lf, and vegetating from fts own Z^Ll^il J^.* 8 "™* *po*. th°em. 
adopted as the symbol of the productive power of the Deify upon the w,te7sTmKn^w7 T ^J" ^ **<*> Was natura % 
with some few other seeds, the cotyledons, or seminal leaves, early maSesTthemsetes it 255 £ "t ' ** h ° WW ' ^ that ' » 
plant may at any time be seen, and in that state are deposited into the soft nrllific bosom rf he ?, ,! ?? ** "**»** ° f the ^"g 

§ Dr. Darwin, in his 2^e o/2W e , says, p. 162, "that the Phcenix nsW fom Town « . earth ' T^ ^ "^ teke instant root 
t.on and resuscitation of all things. It is represented with the DogZr oveH* " '" " *" l " WR * l n* fc «"blem of the destruc- 

" So when Arabia's bird, with age oppress'd, 
Consumes delighted on his spicy nest, 
A filial Paoenix from his ashes springs, 
Crown'd with a star, on renovated wings; 
Ascends exulting from his funeral flame, 
And soars, and shines, another, and the same." 



Nor food to the enlighten'd mind alone,- 
Substantial nutriment thy root* bestow'd, 

In famine's vulture fangs did Egypt groan, 
From thy rich bounteous horn f abundance flow'd. 

* We learn from Herodotus, « that the Egyptians were fed by the root of the different Nymphsas which flourish in the waters of the 
Nile. ' He distinctly points out the two kinds. The one he describes " as producing a root of the size and shape of an apple, which kind 
had a seed-vessel of the form and shape of a poppy, containing seeds as small as millet, of which bread was made." This Lotos he discrimi- 
nates " as resembling most a lily." He next speaks of " the other Lotos, whose flower is also of the lily kind, but more resembling the full- 
blown rose, the fruit of which imitates the nest of a wasp, and contains seeds of the size of an olive, and good to eat." Euterpe, ch. 29. 

Theophrastus equally well describes both sorts. Speaking of the common Nymphceas he says, - The fruit is equal in size to a large 
poppy, and contains a great number of seeds similar to grains of millet. The Egyptians deposit the fruit in heaps, and suffer the vessels to 
putrefy: they then separate the seeds by washing them in the Nile, dry them, and make them into bread. The root, which is called corsion, 
is round and of the size of a guinea. Its rind is black, and like that of a chestnut. It is of a fine white in the inside, and is eaten either raw 
or boiled." Hist, of Plants, Book iv. Chap. 10. 

Sonnini, a most intelligent traveller and learned naturalist, mentions, " that at the present day, the roots of the Lotos furnish the 
common people with their chief sustenance. The large tubers are gathered as the waters subside, and dried, and then eaten, boiled or roasted, 
like our potatoes, which they resemble in taste, but are more mealy." Travels into Egypt. 

The roots of all the sorts are admitted by the Chinese to their tables, and the ponds and lakes are cultivated with the Nelumbium, which 
is one principal cause of the abundant population of that country. « In whatever way prepared it is equally pleasant and wholesome. Great 
quantities are pickled with salt and vinegar, which is then eaten with rice. Reduced to powder by grating, like our potatoe, it makes a most 
excellent flour." Embassy to China by Lord Macartney. 

f The horn-like appearance of the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium so exactly resembles the Cornucopia of the ancients, that the Grecian 
Horn of Plenty seems to have been derived from this source. Their tradition states, that the nurse of Jupiter was the goat Amalthea, (a 
name derived from «>«XfW«, to nourish), who for her services was afterwards turned into a star, and presented with the Cornucopia. The 
first food of man being bread and milk, gave origin to this Grecian fable, for their Ceres was nothing more than a corruption of the Egvptian 
Isis, who is represented in the temples of Egypt with the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium in her hand. Sometimes in Egyptian sculpture their 
Iris, or Ceres, is seen with the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium in the left arm, and some ears of corn intermixed with the seed-vessel of either 
the Nymphcea caerulea, or Nymphaa Lotos, in the right. The Greeks and Romans, who borrowed their religion chiefly from the Egyptians, 
not only mistook the Cornucopia for a real horn, but also the seed-vessel of the Lotos for that of the Poppy, to which it bears much resem- 

The Egyptian Isis holds in her right hand a sphere, for the Egyptian priests taught that the earth was round (such was the doctrine of 
Pythagoras), this the more refined Greeks converted into a sickle, when she became their Ceres ; and to represent the earth, they sometimes 
adorned her head with a turret, when she became Magna Dea, or Cybele; and instead of the cornucopia they increased the number of her 
breasts when she was made to represent abundant Nature. 

That the Greeks derived their deities from the Egyptians we have not only the probability from the resemblance, but the direct confession 
of Herodotus, who visited the priests of both Heliopolis and Thebes; and he declares, "that the Grecian Theology is derived from the 
Egyptian." Herod. Lib. ii. p. 80. 

As Isis was supposed by the Egyptians to inhabit the moon, as Osiris did the sun (the Apollo and Bacchus of the Greeks), hence they 
placed a crescent on her head when she became their Diana. Her chastity they fancied from the pale brightness or chill of the Moon, for 
as the Egyptian gods had each their wives and concubines, according to Eastern manners, the produce of Osiris and Isis was Orus, the 
Mercury of the Greeks. 

Sometimes Orus is represented in Egyptian sculpture as a simple boy, sometimes, however, he is Anubis, or the Barking Dog, with a 
Caduceus in his hand, and wings to his feet. 

The Egyptians, a race dealing in symbols, designed by Anubis vigilance, and at the commencement of the overflow of the Nile their priests 
presented this figure to them as a warning ; the wings on the feet denoted the rapidity of the flood ; the caduceus, the generation of serpents 
by the waters ; and its two wings, the Etesian, or west wind, which sets in at that time. 

The more refined Greeks did not at all relish such a figure of a god, and for the head of a dog they substituted a cap, and for the two 
ears placed two wings on the cap, covering a human head, but the other parts resemble the Egyptian figure. 

The seed-vessel of the Nelumbium will furnish us also with another key to unlock the stores of ancient knowledge. Pythagoras, the 
introducer amongst his countrymen of the Metempsychosis, and who taught in symbols, has prohibited his disciples from eating beans, they 
might eat peas, but not beans ; and in order to reconcile this seeming strange interdiction, « abstain from beans," has been interpreted to 
keep from political disputes, which were decided by lot ; but Doctor Priestley says it is meant in the obvious sense of the words, as being very 
fattening food, and is a caution against corpulency. But as his golden rules were symbols, I am inclined to think that he alluded to the 
Egyptian bean. " Abstain from beans," meant against the indulging in any luxury to the detriment of the people ; for by eating only thirty 
beans, thirty plants were destroyed, which would have furnished tubers (potatoes) for as many families, and this plant was dispersed by the 
bounty of Providence on the shores of the Nile, as food for the common people, and not sown by mortal hands. Hence it was, Egypt, abound- 
ing also in corn, became the granary of the world, and its store-houses furnished the neighbouring nations ; and hence it was that the Romans 
represented on their medals Ceres, with a ship by her side, as denoting the transport of corn from Egypt. 

To prove the rarity of the Nelumbium even in the time of Adrian, Atheneeus relates (Deipnosoph. lib. iii. p. ?3.) that it changed its 
appellation into the Antinoian flower. " A poet," says this historian, " presented the emperor Adrian with the rose Lotos (Nelumbium) 
as a rarity, and accounts for its produce from the blood of that terrible lion called Antinoian, which had committed great devastation in 
Lybia, and was finally killed in Egypt by Adrian in hunting." 

Strabo relates, that the Nelumbium was once very common in Egypt, and that during festivals on the water the barges rowed under the 
shade of its immense leaves, which greatly resemble a Thessalian cap. (Lib. xvii.) 

D Did 


Did raging pestilence her shores invade 
Wafted from burning Lybia's sultry plains, 

Thy cooling seeds the ardent thirst allay'd 
And checked the fervor of the throbbing veins.* 

Arm'd with thy foliage in the cool of day 
Safe down the Nile the happy Memphians glide; 

The charm'd Leviathanf forgets his prey, 
And sports, innoxious, on the sacred tide.J 

Hence the immortal race§ in Thebes || reverd, 
Thy praise the theme of endless rapture made; 

Thy image on an hundred columns reard, 
And veird their altars with thine hallow'd shade. 

* " The roots and seeds of the Nelumbium," says Loureiro, " are both sapid and wholesome. These are accounted cooling and strength- 
ening, and are found a specific against extreme thirst, diarrhoea, tenesmus, vomiting, and too great internal heat." 

f The Leviathan of Job is the crocodile. " Canst thou draw out Leviathan with a hook?" is the question proposed, to shew the supe- 
rior power of the Deity. His worship in Egypt is accounted for by some as representing Typhon, the sea, of which the Egyptians appear 
to have had a great dread, for by ships their enemies invaded their country. Another reason for this worship is given in note § below. 

J All the Nymphseas have smooth stalks, except the Nelumbium, which is armed with short yet strong prickles, which piercing the 
eyes of the crocodile, is by them remembered, and on this account that animal shuns the appearance of the Nelumbium. That the crocodile 
avoids the Nelumbium is noticed by Herodotus. 

§ The origin of all religion, as I observed before, originated in gratitude. " On this score/' says Cicero, " the Ibis was esteemed sacred 
as a bird which destroyed serpents, and the Ichneumon as the devourer of the eggs of the crocodile, and the crocodile itself as protecting the 
Nile from the invasion of the Arabs," (Vide Cicero de Natura Decorum), but this homage to the crocodile was given only in some parts of 
Egypt; and, lastly, I might mention the onion, a bulb which vegetated out of its own matrix, like the Nelumbium, and as containing spheres 
within spheres, the true system of the world, so little did the Egyptians merit to be satyrized by Juvenal, 

Porrum et Cepe nefas violare et frangere morsu. 
O Sanctas gentes, quibus haec nascuntur in hortis 

|| Thevenot, a modern French traveller, thus describes ancient Thebes. " The works of the Egyptians," says this admired writer, 
" were calculated to withstand the corroding tooth of time: their statues were colossal, their columns immense. Egypt aimed at grandeur, 
and sought to strike the eye at a distance, but never also failed to gratify it by correctness of proportion. In the Said, (which was anciently 
called Thebais,) have been discovered temples and palaces, at this day almost entire, where these columns and statues are innumerable. The 
admiration of the traveller is particularly excited by a palace, the remains of which seem to have subsisted only to eclipse the glory of all the 
noblest modern works of art. Four alleys, extending farther than the eye can reach, and bounded, on each side, by sphinxes of a substance 
as rare as their size is remarkable, serve as avenues to four porticoes of most astonishing height. How magnificent! how stupendous! In- 
deed, those who have described to us this prodigious edifice, have not had time to examine its whole extent, nor are they even certain of 
having seen the half of its beauties; but all that they did see was truly wonderful. 

" A saloon, which apparently formed the middle of this superb palace, was supported by more than an hundred columns, the circumference 
of each of which could not be spanned by six men with extended arms. These columns were lofty in proportion, and interspersed with 
obelisks which so many revolving ages have not been able to overthrow. Even the colours, which, from their nature, soonest experience the 
power of time, are still unfaded among the ruins of this admirable edifice, and display all their original brilliancy; so well did Egypt know 
how to impress the stamp of immortality on all her productions." 

The city which the Greeks call Thebes, the Egyptians Diospolis, (says Diodorus, lib. i. par. 2.) was in circuit an hundred and forty 
stadia, adorned with stately buildings, magnificent temples, and rich donations. It was not only the most beautiful and noble city of 
Egypt, but of the whole world. The fame of its wealth and grandeur was so celebrated in all parts, that Homer has taken notice of it in 
these words: 

......... J? $<r« Qyfeaq 

Aiy\nf\iots, oQt wXttfa iofta^ tv %[y\\ia]a. xttTui, 
Aid* ixalofiirvXot i »Vi, Sttpcoo-tot 1* m txctgyv 
'Ayffff «Jo<^€u<ri tinrottri xoti oxtripiv. V. 381. 

Though others affirm it had not an hundred gates, but as many vast porches to the principal temple; and that the city was called Hundred- 
gated, only as having many gates. Yet it is certain it furnished twenty thousand chariots of war ; for there were an hundred stables along the 
river, from Memphis to Thebes towards Libya, each of which contained two hundred horses, the ruins whereof are shewn at this day. The 
princes from time to time made it their care to beautify and enlarge this city, to which none under the sun was equal in the many and mag- 

nificent treasures of gold, silver, and ivory; with innumerable eolossuses, and obelisques of one entire stone. There were four temples edmir- 
^l^^gSU the most aLentof which was in circuit thirteen stadia, and five-and-forty cub.ts .n height, with a wall of 

four-and- twenty feet broad." . 

What history records of the buildings of the Egyptians would surpass credibility, were it not attested by their monument., wk»* 
remain to this day. Egypt is a scene of antiquities; walking among ruins, the traveller forgets the present to contemplate the past and, 
"he tral ol; degenerate race, marks the'remains of a mighty nation. Their bui.dings are still sub.ime. ^T^^UZ 
always ranked among the wonders of the wor.d. Three of them still remain, at the distance of ™ e »^»« trom . ^^l !^g 
S3." formerly stood. The largest of the three, called the Great Pyramid, forms a square, each side of whose base is 060 fee . The 
cTrcZfere™2 y 640 feet. The basis covers eleven acres of ground. The perpendicular height is about 450 feet ;,f measured obliquely 700. 
?heT U mmit which v^wed from below appears a point, is 1 platform, each side of which is ,8 feet long The stones with which th.s 
The summit, wtach v.e*e ™ A hundred thousand workmen were constantly employed in on th.s 

JtTuZe ^^ir^ttiSjii. immense fabric. The sum emended for food to the workmen amounted to tooo talents 
whTch, comparing the value of' money in those days with what it is at present, amounts to more than two hundred thousand pounds 

StCrl The original destination of these most ancient monuments of human ingenuity, and which are likely to last coeval with the works of 
Na Je a3ng % he testimony of a.l antiquity, was to contain the embalmed bodies of the first monarchs of Egypt ™<° b *™*Zm a 
sST that owLs the middle of the height of one of the sides, by raising a stone, an oblique passage is opened, leads to the coffin 
ofT Wn L thTce.l e of the pyramid, forms a striking proof of the ancient belief on this subject, and .s confirmed by every observat.on 
which has been mal on these stupendous structures. The Egyptians not only believed in the immortal.ty of the sou,, but also m the re- 
lation of The hot, after a long period of years : hence their extraordinary attention to embalm and preserve the uncorrupted of 

thdr T r n^ ~^::t^om an unknown antiquity. Herodotus, who wrote 2 ooo years ago, speaks with as much uncer- 

tions no tracefof that Egyptian mode of writing appears on the pyramids, because they were erected before h.eroglyphical was col- 
lated i st onlr poofo'f their age still remafns.^The general idea of Egyptian architecture was entirdy taken from the pyram.ds; 
noThnt btt theif high veneration for them, increased by their remote antiquity, could possibly have occas.oned; s.nce the figure of these 
rbrts^oweUadaped to triumph over time, is inconvenient for habitable structures, whether public or private Yet we find, from the 
atiS ruinTlf Sgher Egypt, that a.l the bui.dings, without exception, were raised on the model of the pyram.ds. We are surpnsed to 
a a nt ™lv their oorts their doors, but even the walls of their towns, inclining to this form. 

TliaCZtFT^TlossM. more astonishing than the pyramids. The same circuit of inclosed 3000 apartments, tweh-e of 

The Labyr ,nth _v>aj ^ and * b Th c L munica ted with each other by so many turns and windmgs, that without a guide the 

wh,ch were of ^T^lfZ c ^ « was under ground: the labyrinth terminated in a pyramid forty fathoms high. 

traveller was lost. One half ot the c ° amDer ^ a " & composition. The first models were erected by Sesostris, as monuments 

The Obelisks are in the same grand £^ »** • fw re Z f t h^gh. The Romans, in the era of their grandeur, transported 

t^o^^o^Z7^X:^:^^ Jain, and, for *%** - ^deur, rank among the greatest curiosities 

described and accu ^ ate ^ ~ e centre fece rf wWch alone measured in fength five feet ; that of the same face the nose measured one 

grand bust in the Elephanta .cavern toe ^ ^ ^ .^^ ^ ^ ^ stupendous bread th 

ttSSflZZ S^55SS -s near twenty fee, Vide Maurice's tntian Annies, with a Plate of this Bust and 

description, in Vol. I1L &J20. _ midd]e rf jy ^ ; ^ head ^ six feet broad , from the top of the 

« This large colos al sfctue ^^^ and so it does from the bottom of the neck to the navel. It is twenty-one feet broad 

head » + *^*^£^2Z72t four inches broad, and the foot is four feet eight inches broad." In another court of 
at the shoulders, the ear is three teet long ^.^ a ^ ^ measured> from the 

this ruined temple he saw the £^J£^£»££ fee , Thc statue , on the east, is three feet five inches long in the foot : 
hands only to the elbow, five feet , and thence to t one ^ ^ „ Jf admiratl0n 

lying at a distance from .t was the heM ^^^2 ' S^.^^? J^aimen-— rf these statues, to what an exalted point will his 
should be excited in the mind of the reader, on perusing tne a deS criDtive of the celebrated statue of Memnon, standing upon a 

astonishment be elevated, when he casts his eye upor .the SU ^ ^ that this is the 

pedestal, which is alone above thirty feet in height, andin w dth "^ " e fir st appulse of the beam of the orient sun, to have emitted a dis- 
Lous statue erected in the temple rf 8«».., ^****£* * J ^ rto porous dark granite, such as he never saw before, 
tinctly audible sound. It is g^^J^^KZTKfC— ZL£ Ui <* '"" ° f wh ' ch <~ ^ ** 
ffi!E£S£3 6 -r Mel m^^ormeVfrom the magnitude of the leg and foot, still remaining entire. Of these an engrav- 

But far beyond the bounds of Afric borne, 
Thy honors flourish'd mid Thibetian snows, 

Thy flowers the Lamas* gilded shrine adorn, 
And Brahmf and Buddha $ on thy flow'r repose. 

ing, entirely covered with the inscriptions of Greek and Roman travellers, who bore their attestation to its having sent forth such a sound on 
the rising of the sun, (this arose probably from Egyptian priestcraft), appears opposite to page 1 4 o of his first volume; and he found the 
height of the leg, " from the bottom of the foot to the top of the knee, to be about nineteen feet; from the bottom of the foot to the ankle 
two feet six inches; to the top of the instep, four feet; the foot itself being five feet broad, and the leg four feet in depth." 

Stupendous as these mensurations must appear, even these appear comparatively small, when we consider what is related in Pliny con- 
cermng the wonderful Sphynx ; for that writer affirms, that the head was no less than one hundred and two feet in circumference- that 
the figure itself was sixty-two feet high from the belly to the crown of the head ; and that its entire length was 143 feet. This figure also had 
its meaning. It related to the inundation, or overflowing of the Nile, which happened in the middle of the month Leo (the Lion) and 
reached to the month Virgo (the Virgin). He who could discover the anigma was honoured by the priests, and this produced the fabulous 
story among the Greeks, of CEdipus. 

If we look for the origin of our Architecture, we shall also find it to proceed from the Egyptian. Their pillars are our columns, taken from 
their palms ; and our orders (the capitals) are its branches, which arise from the top; sometimes the Lotos, in forming even the column, appears- 
and in ornamenting their walls and ceiling the Lotos has the principal share. However staggering, what is with us called the Rose, is the Lotos • 
and our honeysuckle is the infant plantule of the Lotos arising from its matrix, or seed-vessel. Sonnini, p. 592 of his Travels, mistook this 
representation in the temple of Dendera, " for that of a proliferous flower, which he could not account for." « The Egyptians " says Delile 
Member of the Egyptian Institute, « not unfrequently represent the leaves of the Lotos of the same size as the flowers, although they are 
much larger, and omit the marks of indentation ; but I once saw at Latopolis the Lotos represented with indented leaves. The seed-vessel of 
the white and blue Lotos may be also distinguished in some of the Egyptian sculptures." 

In the < Memoirs de l'Academie des Inscriptions, et Belles Lettres, anno 3790/ he also mentions, « that Barthelemy describes a very 
ancient Egyptian mosaic, representing the flowers, seed-vessel, and leaves of the Nelumbium, very correctly performed, of which a painting 
has been made by Bartholi in exactly the same colours, as may be seen in the library of the Pantheon, where it is deposited." 

In the sculptures of the representations of religious ceremonies, the priests are seen holding in their hands the Nelumbium when approach 
ing the Idol, as do their servants, who are usually represented behind, having the tail of a monkey, to shew, I suspect, degradation All 
the Nymphaeas, as furnishing food, were equally held sacred. Vide our Notes on the Nyraphsea Ccerulea. 

* Lama is the sovereign pontiff, or rather God, of the Asiatic Tartars, inhabiting the country of Barantola. The lama is not only adored 
by the inhabitants of the country, but also by the kings of Tartary, who send him rich presents, and go in pilgrimage to pay him adoration 
calling him lama congiu t i. e. « God, the everlasting father of heaven." He is never to be seen but in a secret place of his palace amidst a 
great number of lamps, sitting cross-legged upon a cushion, and adorned all over with gold and precious stones; where at a distance they 
prostrate themselves before him, it not being lawful for any to kiss even his feet. He is called the great lama, or lama of lamas • that is 
"God of Gods." The orthodox opinion is, that when the grand lama seems to die either of old age or infirmity, his soul in fact only 
quits a crazy habitation to look for another younger or better ; and it is discovered again in the body of some child, by certain tokens known 
only to the lamas or priests, in which order he always appears. 

A long account of the ceremonies attending the inauguration of the infant lama in Thibet, may be seen in the first volume of the 
Asiatic Researches. 

f An account of Brahma is given in a note to the Canna Indica, and of his marriage with Main in our history of the Blue Lotos This 
god is seated on the flat surface of the seed-vessel of the Nelumbium, in the same manner as Osiris is represented in Egyptian sculpture hold- 
ing a whip in his hand, which denoted his driving the chariot of the sun. In other sculptures, where he is represented as the god of the sun 
he drives twelve horses in hand, which are certainly meant for the twelve signs of the zodiac, which symbols the more refined Greeks have 
lost in their more elegant representation of Phoebus. 

% One of the most remarkable innovators in the religion of the Brahmins was Buddha, who is generally supposed to be the Fo of the Chi- 
nese, the Xaca of Japan, and the Odin of the north of Europe. His worship prevails in India beyond the Ganges. He is the ninth avatar or 
appearance of Vishnoo upon earth, and this is supposed to have happened in 1027 before Christ. A religion very similar to this is that of 'the 
Lamas of Thibet. 

In the " Asiatic Researches" is a translation of a Sanscrit inscription on a stone at the entrance of a temple at Boodha Gaya by Mr 
Wilkins, as follows. « In the midst of a wild and dreadful forest, flourishing with trees of sweet-scented flowers, and abounding 'in fruits 
and roots, infested with lions and tigers, destitute of human society, and frequented by the Moonees, resided Bood-dha, the Author of Hap- 
piness, and a portion of Narayan. This Deity Haree, who is the Lord Hareesa, the possessor of all, appeared in this ocean of natural 
Beings at the close of the Devapara, and beginning of the Kalee Yoog. He who is omnipresent, and everlastingly to be contemplated the 
Supreme Being, the Eternal One, the Divinity worthy to be adored by the most praise- worthy of mankind, and who appeared here with a 
portion of his divine nature. 

For once upon a time the illustrious Amara, renowned amongst men, coming here, discovered the place of the Supreme Being, Bood-dha 
m the great forest. The wise Amara endeavoured to render the God Bood-dlia propitious by superior service ; and he remained in the forest 
for the space of twelve years, feeding upon roots and fruits, and sleeping upon the bare earth; and he performed the vow of a Moonee and 
was without transgression. He performed acts of severe mortification, for he was a man of infinite resolution, with a compassionate heart 
One n.ght he had a vision, and heard a voice saying, « Name whatever boon thou wantest.' Amara having heard this, was astonished and 
with due reverence he replied, < First, give me a visitation, and then grant me such a boon.' He had another dream in the same night and the 
voice said, < How can there be any apparition in the Kalee Yoog? The same reward may be obtained from the sight of an image 'or from 
the worship of an image, as may be derived from the immediate visitation of a deity.' Having heard this, he caused an image of the Supreme 
Spirit Bood-dha to be made, and he worshipped it, according to the law, with perfumes, incenses, and the like; and he thus glorified the 



Where'er fair Science dawn'd on Asias shore, 
Where'er her hallow'd voice Devotion raised, 

We see thee graven on the shining ore, 
And on a thousand sparkling gems emblazed, 


name of that Supreme Being, the incarnation of a portion of Veshnoo: ■ Reverence be unto thee in the form of Bood-dlia! Reverence be 
unto the Lord of the Earth ? Reverence be unto thee, an incarnation of the Deity and the Eternal One! Reverence be unto thee, O God, in 
the form of the God of Mercy : the dispeller of pain and trouble, the Lord of all things, the Deity who overcometh the sins of the Katee 
Yoog, the Guardian of the Universe, the Emblem of mercy toward those who serve thee — O'm ! the possessor of all things in vital form ! 
Thou art Brahma, Veshnoo, and Mahea! Thou art Lord of the Universe! Thou art, under the form of all things, moveable and immove- 
able, the possessor of the whole ! and thus I adore thee. Reverence be unto the Bestower of Salvation, and Resheekesa, the Ruler of the 
Faculties ! Reverence be unto thee (Kisava) the Destroyer of the Evil Spirit Kisee ! O, Damordara, shew me favour ! Thou art he who 
resteth upon the face of the milky ocean, and who lieth upon the serpent Sesd. Thou art Treeviekrama, who at three strides encompassed 
the Earth! I adore thee, who art celebrated by a thousand names, and under various forms, in the shape of Bood-dha, the God of Mercy! 
Be propitious, O Most High God!' 

" Having thus worshipped the Guardian of Mankind, he became like one of the just. He joyfully caused a holy temple to be built, of a 
wonderful construction, and therein were set up the divine foot of Veshnoo, for ever purifier of the sins of mankind, the images of the Pan- 
doos, and of the descents of Veshnoo : and in like manner of Brahma, and the rest of the divinities. 

" This place is renowned ; and it is celebrated by the name of Bood-dJia Gaya. The forefathers of him who shall perform the ceremony 
of the Sradha at this place shall obtain salvation. 

" A crime of an hundred fold shall undoubtedly be expiated from a sight thereof, of a thousand fold from a touch thereof, and of a hun- 
dred thousand fold from worshipping thereof. But where is the use of saying so much of the great virtues of this place ? Even the hosts of 
heaven worship it with joyful service both day and night." 

Brahma, Vishnu, Surya, and Ganesa, are each seated upon the Lotos ; and Ganga is painted walking on her own river, holding a 
Lotos in each hand. Vide Dissertation on the Gods of Greece, Italy, and India, in the Asiatic Researches, by Sir William Jones, Vol. I. 
p. 221. 

Kaempfer has given us a curious representation of the goddess Quanwon sitting upon this aquatic plant. In one part of his work he de- 
scribed her, as having eight little children placed round her head, six of whom formed a sort of crown, while the two others were larger than 
the rest, (Kaempfer's Japan, p. 5Q5.) ; and in another part of the same work, speaking of a different statue of the same goddess, he observes, 
that •' seven smaller idols adorned her head, like a crown or garland, whereby is denoted, that she was the happy mother of many a deified 
hero : nay, the Japanese look upon this idol, as an emblematical representation of the birth of the gods in general, (Kaempfer's Japan, 
p. 542.) Barrow remarks, in his account of the embassy, " that when the Shing-moo, or holy mother, is represented in Chinese temples, 
she generally holds a flower of the Nelumbium in her hand ; and when sitting she is usually placed upon its large peltate leaf:" and proceeds 
to observe, p. 474, " that in China few temples are without some representation of the Nelumbium. Sometimes the Shing-moo is painted as 
standing upon its leaves in the middle of a lake;" and that in one temple he observed the intelligent mother seated upon its leaf, which had 
been hewn out of the living rock. 

In the " Songs of Jayadeva," the several kinds of Lotos are very frequently mentioned. " Thou, whose eyes sparkle as the Blue Lotos 
agitated by the breeze, and whose lips are as the Red Lotos in full bloom. Those beautiful blue eyes are become, through thy resentment, 
like the petals of the Crimson Lotos : Oh! tinge with their effulgence these my limbs reclining on a bed of soft White Lotos leaves, that they 
may glow like the arrows of Love pointed with flowers. My locks are decked with the deep azure of Water Lilies, my dress is a robe of 
pale yellow, which resembles the golden dust of the Water Lily scattered over its blue petals." Vide Asiatic Researches, p. 185. In all 
Persian songs, Dipuc (Cupid) is represented as pointing his arrows with the petals of the Red Lotos. 

Among the rites and ceremonies of the Hindus, a kind of religious Almanac translated by Sir William Jones, is the following passage. 
" On this lunar day Sereswati, or Isa," (the Isis of the Egyptians), " the Goddess of Arts and Eloquence is to be worshipped with offer- 
ings of perfumes, flowers, and dressed rice. Even the implements of writing, and written books, are to be treated with reverence, and not 
used on this festival. This meditation is to be used. May Sereswati, the Goddess of Speech, enable us to attain all possible felicity; she 
who wears on her locks a beautiful half moon, which shines with a pale, but exquisite lustre; whose body bends through the weight of her 
full breasts ; who sits reclined on the White Lotos ; and from the Crimson Lotos" (Lotos is used for beauty) " of her hands infuses radiance 
on the instruments of writing, and books produced through her favour." Vide Asiatic Researches, Vol. iii. p. 722. 


Cupid derives from thee his glowing fires, 
And with thy radiant petals points his dart, 

He fills the ardent soul with fond desires, 
And softly steals upon the yielding heart. 

Whatever grace can youthful beauty shew, 
Whether the glittVing eye, or brow above, 

From thee, the cheering thought is made to glow, 
Thyself the agent of all-pow'rful love. 

I cannot dismiss these notes without here testifying generally my obligations to the learned labours of the Rev. Mr. Maurice in his 
« Indian Antiquities," a work of the greatest classical skill, profoundest research, and most elegant diction. Where the conjectures are my 
own, I have indeed inserted them with the utmost diffidence, trusting in the liberality and candour of my readers. 




iw^._ /},/■/, '>/.,/./., 

''/st ' " /■'''', ^ '/ - 

Ml ■■V—-,-*'— ■- 

I • 




In our Picturesque Plate, we have introduced a distant view of Aboukir, and the waters of the 
Nile, where the Blue Lotos is found in great abundance, and which tends much to enliven the 
scene. As the flood subsides, its tuberous roots afford a nourishment nearly resembling our 
Potatoe, but more mealy. It has an exterior calyx, consisting of four green leaves, internally 
coloured blue ; numerous corolla leaves, of the finest azure colour, a number of stamina, with 
yellow filaments, tipt with blue anthers, and an orbicular pistillum, crowned with a stigma radiated 
like our Poppy, and turning like it to a pericarp filled with innumerable small seeds. The leaves 
not being crenated, as with the White Lotos (Nymphm Lotos), it more nearly corresponds 
with our common White Lily. It comes under the Class Polyandria, Order Monogynia, 
of Linnaeus. 

It was surely a most extraordinary sight, to observe the proud conqueror of Egypt presiding 
over a literary association to promote science, and most attentively listening to, and applauding 
a discourse read by Julius Ccesar Savigni,* on those sacred Nymph^as which embellish the 
shores of Egypt; little then did his arrogant soul imagine, that at that time on the buoyant 
wave was floating the thunder of the British arms, which Providence had destined to annihilate 
his proud army, and take from it its famed standard impiously called ' Lnvincible' Little then 
did HE dream, that a bloody+ diadem would soon encircle his brow, and that he would feel 
never satiated with human honours, his mind becoming a dreadful prey to a cursed, a senseless, 
and wicked ambition. 


CHILD OF THE SUN! why droops thy withering head, 

While high in Leo flames thy radiant sire ; 

With Egypt's glory is thy glory fled, 

And with her genius quench'd thy native fire? — 

Far direr than her desert's burning wind, 
Gaul's furious legions sweep yon ravaged vale, 
Death stalks before, grim famine howls behind, 
And screams of horror load the tainted gale. 

* Such are the pompous appellations the French assumed, as their Christian names, and it was ridiculous enough for a pretended 
republican to usurp the name of an usurper/ 

f The needless and atrocious murder of the Duke D'Enghien, by torch-light, in the Bois de Boulogne, appals every heart with horror! 

A Far 

Nile's crimson'd waves with blood polluted roll, 
Her groves, her fanes, devouring fire consumes ; 
But mark ! Slow rising near the distant pole, 
A sudden splendour all her shores illumes! 

Fatal to GAUL— 'tis BRITAIN'S rising star 
That in the South the bright ascendant gains, 
Resplendent as her Dog Star shines from far, 
And with new fervour fires the Lybian plains. 

A race, as Egypt's ancient warriors* brave, 
For her insulted sons indignant glows, 
Defies the tropic storm, the faithless wave, 
And hurls destruction on their haughty foes. 

Exulting to his source old NILUS hears 
The deepening thunder of the British linef, 
Again its lovely head the Lotos rears, 
Again the fields in rainbow glories shine. 

Still wider, beauteous plant, thy leaves extend, 

Nor dread the eye of an admiring Muse, 

In union with the rising song ascend, 

Spread all thy charms, and all thy sweets diffuse. 

* T 

The Egyptians were formerly a martial race, and the ancient city of Thebes so rich, that Achilles, in Homer, introduces the temptation 
of such an acquisition ! 

Not all proud Thebes' unrivall'd walls contain, 
The world's great Empress on th' ^Egyptian plain, 
(That spreads her conquests o'er a thousand states, 
, And pours her heroes thro' an hundred gates, 

Two hundred horsemen, and two hundred cars 
From each wide portal issuing to the wars); 
Tho' bribes were heap'd on bribes, in number more 
Than dust in fields, or sands along the shore; 
Should all these offers for my friendship call ; 
'Tis he that offers, and I scorn them all. 
Atrides' daughter never shall be led 
(An ill-match'd consort) to Achilles' bed ; 
Like golden Venus tho' she charm'd the heart, 
And vy'd with Pallas in the works of art. 
Some greater Greek let those high nuptials grace, 
I hate alliance with a. tyrant's race. 

Strabo informs us, that the kings of Thebes extended their conquests even as far as Scythia, Bactria, and India. 

f The account given by Nelson of his Naval Victory, deserves to be written in letters of gold, for the religious and manly spirit 
it breathes. Vanguard, off the Mouth of the Nile, August 3, 1798. 

" Almighty God has blessed his Majesty's arms in the late battle by a great victory over the fleet of the enemy, 
whom I attacked at sun-set on the first of August off the Mouth of the Nile. The enemy were mored in a strong line of battle for defending 
the entrance of the Bay (of Shoals), flanked by numerous gun-boats, four frigates, and a battery of guns and mortars on an island in their 
van ; but nothing could withstand the squadron your Lordship did me the honour to place under my command. Their high state of discipline 
is well known to you ; and with the judgment of the captains, together with their valour, and that of the officers and men of every descrip- 
tion, it was absolutely irresistible. 

" Could any thing from my pen add to the character of the captains, I would write it with pleasure, but that is impossible. 

" I have to regret the loss of Captain Westcott, of the Majestic, who was killed early in the action; but the ship was continued to 
.be so well fought by her first lieutenant, Mr. Cuthbert, that I have given him an order to command her till your Lordship's pleasure 
is known. (( ^ 

Of that bold race, beneath the Pleiads born, 
To chaunt thy praise a Northern Bard aspires, 
Nor with more ardour, erst at early dawn, 
The Theban minstrels smote their votive lyres. 

For oh! can climes th' excursive genius bound? 
No. 'Mid Siberia bursts the heav'n-taught strain; 
At either pole the Muses' songs resound, 
And snows descend and whirlwinds rage in vain. 

Four thousand summers have thy pride survey 'd 
Thy Pharaohs moulder in their marble tombs: 
Oblivion's wing the pyramids shall shade, 
But thy fair family unfading blooms! 

Still 'mid these ruin'd towers, adruir'd, rever'd, 
Wave high thy foliage, and secure expand, 
These vast but crumbling piles by men were rear'd, 
But thou wert form'd by an immortal hand. 

With Nature's charms alone thy charms shall fade, 
With being's self thy beauteous tribe decline; 
Oh! living, may thy flow'rs my temples shade, 
And decorate, when dead, my envied shrine. 


" The ships of the enemy, all but their two rear ships, are nearly dismasted : and those two, with two frigates, I am sorry to say, made 
their escape; nor was it, I assure you, in my power to prevent them. Captain Hood most handsomely endeavoured to do it; but I had no 
ship in a condition to support the Zealous, and I was obliged to call her in. 

" The support and assistance I have received from Captain Berry cannot be sufficiently expressed ; I was wounded in the head, and 
obliged to be carried off the deck, but the service suffered no loss by that event, Captain Berry was fully equal to the important service then 
going on, and to him I must beg leave to refer you for every information relative to this victory. He will present you with the flag of the 
second in command, that of the commander in chief being burnt in the L'Orient. 

" Herewith I transmit" you lists of the killed and wounded, and the lines of battle of ourselves and the French. 

" I have the honour to be, &c. 





1 . Culloden Captain T. Troubridge 74 . 

2. Theseus Captain R. W. Miller 74 . 

3. Alexander Captain Alex. J. Ball 74 . 

a V» M rtiA R n 5 Rear Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson. . > _ . ~ 

^Vanguard { Captain Edward Berry | 74 5 9 5 

5. Minotaur Captain Thomas Louis 74 . 

6. Lbander Captain T. B. Thompson 50 . 

7. Swiftsure Captain B. Hallowell 74 . 

8. Audacious Captain Davidge Gould 74 . 

9. Defence Captain John Peyton 74 . 

10. Zealous Captain Samuel Hood 74 . 

1 1 . Ori on Captain Sir James Saumarez. . . . . 74 . 

12. Goliath Captain Thomas Foley 74 . 

13. Majestic Captain G. B. Westcott 74 . 

14. Bellerophon Captain H. D. E. Darby 74 . 

La Mutinb, Brig — — 

Officers, Seamen, and Marines, killed and wounded 895. 




. 343 

. 590 

. -590 

. 590 

• 590 

. 590 

. 590 

. 590 

. 598 



1. Le Guerrier Taken 

2. Le CoNauERANT Taken 

3. Lb Sparti ate Taken ■ 

4. L'AauiLON '. ,. Taken 

5 Le Souverain Peuple Taken 

6. Lb Franklin Blanquet, 1st. Contre Amiral.. . .Taken 80 

7. L'Orient Brueys, Admiral and Commander in Chief. . Burnt 

8. Le Tonant Taken 

9. L'Hbureux Taken 

10. Le Timoleon Burnt 

1 J. Le Mercurb Taken 

1 3. Le Guillaumb Tell . . . Villeneuvc, 2d. Contre Amiral Escaped. . . . ". 

13. Le Gbnereux Escaped 

14. La Diane Frigate Escaped ,. w _ 

15. La Justice . . .Ditto Escaped 44 

16. L'Artemise. . .Ditto Burnt 

1 7. La Serieuse Dismasted and sunk. . .......... . . . 




74 .. 

.. 700 

74 .. 

.. 700 

, 74 .. 

.. 700 

. 74 .. 

.. 700 

7-i •• 

.. 700 

80 .. 

.. 800 

120 .. 

.. 1010 

80 .. 

.. 800 

74 .. 

.. 700 

74 .. 

.. 700 

74 .. 

.. 700 

. 80 .. 

.. 800 

. 74 .. 

.. 700 

48 .. 

.. 300 

. 44 .. 

.. 300 

36 .. 

.. 250 

36 .. 

.. 250 


To this triumph, not long after was added the famous battle at Aboukir, near Alexandria, in which the brave Abercrombie fell, 
after which the French army in Egypt surrendered to the British. In the Gazette account of this battle, Lord Hutchinson gives us an 
affecting account of the death of Abercrombie. u Few more severe battles have been fought. We have sustained an irreparable loss in the 
person of our never-sufficiently to be lamented Commander in Chief, who was mortally wounded in this battle, and died March 28, 1801. I 
believe he was wounded early, but he concealed his situation from those about him, and continued in the field, giving his orders with that 
coolness and perspicuity, which had ever marked his character, till long after the action was over, when he fainted through loss of blood. 
Were it permitted for a soldier to regret any one who has fallen in the service of his country, I might be excused for lamenting him more than 
any other person ; but it is some consolation to those who tenderly loved him, that as his life was honourable, so was his death glorious. His 
memory henceforth will be recorded in the annals of his country— will be sacred to every British soldier— and embalmed in the recollection of 
a grateful posterity." 




It is taught in Eastern Mythology/ which is the same nearly as the Egyptian, that Mai a, 
who was first created by Brahma, by whom in concert all other things were formed on the 
watery abyss, was seated on the Blue Lotos, and thus gently wafted to Brahma. 



While Brahma pensive on the Lotos lay 

Warm'd by the bright orient beams of day, 

Transporting visions in his fancy roll, 

Creation rushes on his raptur'd soul, 

Before his view the forms of beings move, 

And all the Deity dissolves in love; 

By one vast stretch of thought bright MAIA sprung, 

Maia, the wise, the blooming, and the young: — 

On the Blue Lotos sat the beauteous Queen 

Who look'd enchantment o'er the dazzling scene, 

With out-stretch 'd arms the Goddess seem'd to swim, 

And mov'd alternate every pliant limb; 

Now on the Lotos' velvet margin stood 

And view'd her graceful image in the flood; 

Amaz'd, she wonders at her form so bright, 

Seen in the radiance of reflected light; 

Down her fair neck, and o'er her bosom roll'd, 

In sweetest negligence, her locks of gold; 

Round her fine form the dim transparence play'd, 

And shew'd the beauties, that it seem'd to shade: — 

Wave after wave, the A%ure Lotos bore 

As though impatient for some destin'd shore, 

Around the flower the fanning Zephyrs play 

And speed the buoyant vessel on its way, 

While gently thrilling thro' her raptur'd frame 

With kindling life, shot Love's voluptuous flame. 

The God and Goddess meet — With transport fired, 

Delighted each the other's charms admired! 

Enamour'd Brahma gaz'd with fond surprize, 

And drank delicious passion from her eyes; 

Marks her white neck beneath the gauze's fold, 

Her ivory shoulders, and her locks of gold; 

Drinks with mute ecstacy the transient glow; 

Which warms and tints her bosom's rising snow; 

Watches each nascent smile and fleeting grace, 

The dimples playing in her blooming face; 

Views the fine mazes of the curls, that break 

Round her fair ear, and shade her damask cheek; 

Drinks the pure fragrance of her breath, and sips 
With tenderest touch the roses of her lips; 
Invites her to partake his throne, his bed, 
And binds the gemm'd Tiara round her head; — 
And now, on fire, th' impatient Brahma press'd 
The blooming Goddess to his fervent breast, 
The conscious Fair betrays her soft alarms, 
Sinks with warm blush into his clasping arms, 
Yields to his fond caress with wanton play, 
And sweet, reluctant, amorous delay. 


The Blue Lotos, by affording to the inhabitants of Egypt,* from its root, and seed-vessel, 
a nutritious food, was properly considered by them as an Emblem of Celestial Love. 

Where Nile's proud waves roll slowly to the main, 
Thro' the fam'd land that knows no falling shower, 

In modest charms above the wat'ry plain 
All bright emerges the mysterious flower. 

And while her guardian sire j- with soft supplies 

Feeds the glad earth, and wakes her green-rob'd brood, 

She meets the tincture of the answering skies, 
And spreads cerulean lustre o'er the flood. 

Touch'd by the floating sapphire's starry vest, 

The hoary Sage to raise devotion strove; 
And bade the beauteous blossom stand confess'd 

The sacred symbol of celestial love. 

Hence, to the dim recesses of the fane 

He bears the gather' d sweets each rising morn : 

From Is is' neck descends the flowery chain, 
And flowery wreaths Osiris' brows adorn. 

* Benignant pair! to mortals still be good: 
Still let old Nilus feel your guiding power! 

O'er our parch'd plains extend his fattening flood, 
And bear upon his breast your sacred flower! 

1 And while with pious care our trembling hand . 

To Heaven's high praise this holy rite ordains, 
Accept these tributes of a grateful land, 

And bless with fav'ring smiles th' Egyptian plains.' 


* The Lotos was equally sacred in Egypt as in India. Vide notes to the history of the Nelumbium. 

f The Lotos is to this day called Arais del Nil, Daughters of the Nile, and Nile is derived from Nil a, blue; and TrtPotfto-, potamos, 
the Greek word for any large river, used also for the Nile, is derived from the Sanscrit word Pa dm a, the name for the Blue Lotos. 



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blood of Tvoees! 'VGERsdonoteven gorge themselves with the 

Cognatis maculis similis fera. 




WISDOM^ and/>n '" OTOftheearth - ™"« " voice of exalted Reason, and ,ear„ 

o r ™ Kut^I ,™ C0NSKT * "^ 0F "^ r - *» " ™ ~ 

Under the present pressure of calamitous circumstances, i, would be wrong for me ,„ tres 
pass any longer upon the purses of a fuhUcs^ei body of subscribers, «, „f whom would 
- certam, generously have acquiesced in my original wore ^tensive scW, even in these Jfif 
tunes; yet s« e /» m^ht have «™* /e ft the aMMmal price; therefore, I trust, a candid and 
enhghtened pubhc, w,ll cheerfully accept what I have been able to perform, and will at least 
allow me this honour, which is all I request, 




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